Filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5)
  Registration No. 333-263150
Prospectus Supplement
(To prospectus dated April 5, 2022)
Up to $100,000,000
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Common Stock
We have entered into an equity distribution agreement with Ashford Hospitality Advisors LLC, a Delaware limited liability company (“Ashford LLC”), Ashford Hospitality Limited Partnership, a Delaware limited partnership (“Ashford Trust OP”), and Virtu Americas LLC, a sales agent, relating to the shares of common stock offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. In accordance with the terms of the equity distribution agreement, we may offer and sell, from time to time, shares of our common stock, par value $0.01 per share, having an aggregate offering price of up to $100,000,000 through the sales agent. Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “AHT.” On April 8, 2022 the last reported sales price of our common stock on the New York Stock Exchange was $7.70 per share.
Sales of our common stock, if any, pursuant to this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus may be made in negotiated transactions, which may include block trades, or transactions that are deemed to be “at-the-market” offerings as defined in Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), including sales made directly on the New York Stock Exchange or sales made to or through a market maker other than on an exchange.
Subject to the terms and conditions of the equity distribution agreement, the sales agent is not required to sell any specific number or dollar amount of shares, but upon acceptance of a placement notice from us, the sales agent, if acting as agent, will use commercially reasonable efforts, consistent with its normal trading and sales practices, to sell the shares offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus on the terms set forth in the placement notice. The sales agent will receive from us a commission of approximately 1.0% of the gross sales price of all shares sold through it as sales agent under the equity distribution agreement. In connection with any sales of common stock on our behalf, the sales agent may be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act, and the compensation paid to the sales agents may be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. See “Plan of Distribution.”
We also may sell some or all of the shares of common stock to the sales agent as principal for its own account at a price agreed upon at the time of sale. If we sell common stock to the sales agent as principal, then we will enter into a separate terms agreement with the sales agent, and the sale will be made pursuant to the terms thereunder.
Our common stock is subject to certain restrictions on ownership designed to preserve our qualification as a real estate investment trust (“REIT”) for federal income tax purposes. See “Description of Capital Stock — Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer” in this prospectus supplement.
Investing in our common stock involves various risks. Risks associated with an investment in our common stock are described under the heading “Risk Factors” on page S-8 of this prospectus supplement and in our Annual Report on Form 10-K most recently filed under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), as updated by our subsequent filings under the Exchange Act.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities, or determined if this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
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The date of this prospectus supplement is April 11, 2022.

 
IMPORTANT NOTICE ABOUT INFORMATION IN THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT
This document consists of two parts. The first part is this prospectus supplement, which describes the specific terms of this offering and also adds to and updates information contained in the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein. The second part is the accompanying prospectus, which gives more general information, some of which does not apply to this offering. You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement, the registration statement of which this prospectus supplement is a part, the accompanying prospectus, and any free writing prospectus that we deliver to you. We have not, and the sales agents have not, authorized anyone to provide you with information or make any representation that is different. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. You should not assume that the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement is correct on any date after the date such information was issued even though this prospectus supplement is delivered or shares are sold pursuant to this prospectus supplement at a later date. Since the date of this prospectus supplement, our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects may have changed.
To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus supplement, on the one hand, and the information contained in the accompanying prospectus or in a filing we have made with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) under the Exchange Act, prior to the date hereof, on the other hand, the information in this prospectus supplement shall control. In addition, any statement in a filing we make with the SEC under the Exchange Act prior to the termination of this offering that adds to, updates or changes information contained in an earlier filing we made with the SEC shall be deemed to modify and supersede such information in the earlier filing, this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus, as the case may be.
When used in this prospectus supplement, the terms “the Company,” “our company,” “we,” “us” or “our” refer to Ashford Hospitality Trust, Inc., a Maryland corporation and, as the context may require, its consolidated subsidiaries, including Ashford Trust OP, a Delaware limited partnership, which we refer to as our “operating partnership.”
 
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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus and the documents incorporated herein contain forward-looking statements that are subject to various risks and uncertainties. Forward looking statements are generally identifiable by use of forward looking terminology such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “potential,” “intend,” “expect,” “outlook,” “seek,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “approximately,” “believe,” “could,” “project,” “predict,” or other similar words or expressions. Additionally, statements regarding the following subjects are forward-looking by their nature:

the impact of the novel coronavirus disease (“COVID-19”) pandemic and numerous governmental travel restrictions and other orders on our business, including one or more possible recurrences of COVID-19 cases causing state and local governments to reinstate travel restrictions;

our business and investment strategy;

anticipated or expected purchases or sales of assets;

our projected operating results;

completion of any pending transactions;

our ability to restructure existing property level indebtedness;

our ability to secure additional financing to enable us to operate our business during the pendency of COVID-19-related business weakness, which has materially impacted our operating cash flows and cash balances;

our understanding of our competition;

market trends;

projected capital expenditures; and

the impact of technology on our operations and business.
Such forward-looking statements are based on our beliefs, assumptions and expectations of our future performance taking into account all information currently known to us. These beliefs, assumptions, and expectations can change as a result of many potential events or factors, not all of which are known to us. If a change occurs, our business, financial condition, liquidity, results of operations, plans, and other objectives may vary materially from those expressed in our forward-looking statements. You should carefully consider this risk when you make an investment decision concerning our securities. Factors that could have a material adverse effect on our forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to:

factors referenced, including those set forth in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021, which is incorporated by reference into this prospectus, under the sections captioned “Item 1. Business,” “Item 1A. Risk Factors” and “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” as updated in our subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q or other reports we may subsequently file with the SEC;

adverse effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, including a significant reduction in business and personal travel and travel restrictions in regions where our hotels are located, and one or more possible recurrences of COVID-19 cases causing a further reduction in business and personal travel and potential reinstatement of travel restrictions by state or local governments;

ongoing negotiations with our lenders regarding potential forbearance or the exercise by our lenders of their remedies for default under our loan agreements;

actions by our lender to accelerate the loan balance and foreclose on the hotel properties that are security for our loan that is in default;

actions by the lenders of our senior secured credit facility to foreclose on our assets which are pledged as collateral;

general volatility of the capital markets and the market price of our securities;

general and economic business conditions affecting the lodging and travel industry;
 
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changes in our business or investment strategy;

availability, terms, and deployment of capital;

unanticipated increases in financing and other costs, including a rise in interest rates;

changes in our industry and the market in which we operate, interest rates, or local economic conditions;

the degree and nature of our competition;

actual and potential conflicts of interest with Ashford Inc. and its subsidiaries (including Ashford LLC, Remington Hotels and Premier Project Management LLC, a subsidiary of Ashford LLC), Braemar Hotels & Resorts, Inc. (together with its subsidiaries, “Braemar”), our executive officers and our non-independent directors;

changes in personnel of Ashford LLC or the lack of availability of qualified personnel;

changes in governmental regulations, accounting rules, tax rates and similar matters;

legislative and regulatory changes, including changes to the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), and related rules, regulations and interpretations governing the taxation of REITs;

limitations imposed on our business and our ability to satisfy complex rules in order for us to qualify as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes; and

future sales and issuances of our common stock or other securities might result in dilution and could cause the price of our common stock or other securities to decline.
When considering forward-looking statements, you should keep in mind the risk factors and other cautionary statements in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein, including under “Risk Factors” in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, as updated in our subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and other filings under the Exchange Act. The matters summarized under “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus supplement and in the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein could cause our actual results and performance to differ significantly from those contained in our forward-looking statements. Additionally, many of these risks and uncertainties are currently amplified by and will continue to be amplified by, or in the future may be amplified by, the COVID-19 outbreak and the numerous government travel restrictions imposed in response thereto. The extent to which COVID-19 impacts us will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted with confidence, including the scope, severity and duration of the pandemic, the actions taken to contain the pandemic or mitigate its impact, and the direct and indirect economic effects of the pandemic and containment measures, among others. Accordingly, we cannot guarantee future results or performance. Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on any of these forward-looking statements, which reflect our views as of the dates of this prospectus supplement. Furthermore, we do not intend to update any of our forward-looking statements after the date of this prospectus supplement to conform these statements to actual results and performance, except as may be required by applicable law.
 
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
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SUMMARY
The following summary highlights information contained elsewhere or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. It may not contain all of the information that is important to you. Before making a decision to invest in our common stock, you should read carefully this entire prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein, including the sections entitled “Risk Factors” in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, as updated by our subsequent filings under the Exchange Act, which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. This summary is qualified in its entirety by the more detailed information and financial statements, including the notes thereto, appearing elsewhere or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus.
Our Company
Ashford Hospitality Trust, Inc., together with its subsidiaries (“Ashford Trust”), is a REIT. While our portfolio currently consists of upscale hotels and upper upscale full-service hotels, our investment strategy is predominantly focused on investing in upper upscale full-service hotels in the United States that have revenue per available room (“RevPAR”) generally less than twice the U.S. national average, and in all methods including direct real estate, equity, and debt. We currently anticipate future investments will predominantly be in upper upscale hotels. We own our lodging investments and conduct our business through Ashford Trust OP, our operating partnership. Ashford OP General Partner LLC, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Ashford Trust, serves as the sole general partner of our operating partnership.
Our hotel properties are primarily branded under the widely recognized upscale and upper upscale brands of Hilton, Hyatt, Marriott and Intercontinental Hotel Group. As of December 31, 2021, we owned interests in the following assets:

100 consolidated hotel properties, which represent 22,313 total rooms;

85 hotel condominium units at WorldQuest Resort in Orlando, Florida (“WorldQuest”);

16.7% ownership in OpenKey, Inc. with a carrying value of $2.8 million; and

32.5% ownership in 815 Commerce Managing Member LLC (“815 Commerce MM”) with a carrying value of $8.5 million.
For U.S. federal income tax purposes, we have elected to be treated as a REIT, which imposes limitations related to operating hotels. As of December 31, 2021, our 100 hotel properties were leased or owned by our wholly-owned or majority-owned subsidiaries that are treated as taxable REIT subsidiaries for U.S. federal income tax purposes (collectively, these subsidiaries are referred to as “Ashford TRS”). Ashford TRS then engages third-party or affiliated hotel management companies to operate the hotels under management contracts. Hotel operating results related to these properties are included in the consolidated statements of operations.
We are advised by Ashford LLC through an advisory agreement. All of the hotel properties in our portfolio are currently asset-managed by Ashford LLC. We do not have any employees. All of the services that might be provided by employees are provided to us by Ashford LLC.
We do not operate any of our hotel properties directly; instead we employ hotel management companies to operate them for us under management contracts. Remington Hotels, a subsidiary of Ashford Inc., manages 68 of our 100 hotel properties and WorldQuest. Third-party management companies manage the remaining hotel properties.
Ashford Inc. also provides other products and services to us or our hotel properties through certain entities in which Ashford Inc. has an ownership interest. These products and services include, but are not limited to, project management services, debt placement and related services, audio visual services, real estate advisory services, insurance claims services, hypoallergenic premium rooms, broker-dealer and distribution services and mobile key technology.
 
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As of December 31, 2021, Mr. Monty J. Bennett and Mr. Archie Bennett, Jr. together owned approximately 610,246 shares of Ashford Inc. common stock, which represented an approximate 20.2% ownership interest in Ashford Inc., and owned 18,758,600 shares of Ashford Inc. Series D Convertible Preferred Stock, which was exercisable (at an exercise price of $117.50 per share) into an additional approximate 3,991,191 shares of Ashford Inc. common stock, which if exercised would have increased the Bennetts’ ownership interest in Ashford Inc. to 65.6%. The 18,758,600 shares of Series D Convertible Preferred Stock owned by Mr. Monty J. Bennett and Mr. Archie Bennett, Jr. include 360,000 shares owned by trusts.
 
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THE OFFERING
Issuer
Ashford Hospitality Trust, Inc.
Securities offered by us
Shares of common stock having an initial public aggregate offering price of up to $100,000,000.
Manner of offering
Sales of our common stock, if any, pursuant to this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus may be made in negotiated transactions, which may include block trades, or transactions that are deemed to be “at-the-market” offerings as defined in Rule 415 under the Securities Act, including sales made directly on the New York Stock Exchange or sales made to or through a market maker other than on an exchange. See “Plan of Distribution” on page S-30.
Use of proceeds
We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering for general corporate purposes, including, without limitation, repayment of debt or other maturing obligations, financing future hotel related investments, capital expenditures and working capital. Pending any such uses, we may invest the net proceeds from the sale of any common stock offered pursuant to this prospectus supplement in short-term investments.
Risk factors
Investing in our securities involves various risks. Risks associated with an investment in these securities are described under the heading “Risk Factors” in this prospectus supplement.
New York Stock Exchange
symbol
“AHT”
 
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RISK FACTORS
Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider and evaluate all of the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus before you decide to purchase shares of our common stock. In particular, you should carefully consider and evaluate the risks and uncertainties set forth below and those described in “Part I — Item 1A. Risk Factors” of our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, our most recent Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, and any subsequent Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q or Current Reports on Form 8-K we file after the date of this prospectus supplement, and all other information contained in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus, as updated by our subsequent filings under the Exchange Act. Any of the risks and uncertainties set forth therein could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition and prospects, which in turn could materially and adversely affect the trading price or value of our common stock. As a result, you could lose all or part of your investment.
 
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USE OF PROCEEDS
We expect to use the net proceeds for general corporate purposes, including, but not limited to, for capital expenditures, potential acquisitions or to repay indebtedness.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK
General
We may offer under this prospectus shares of common stock, par value $0.01 per share. Our charter provides that we have authority to issue up to 450,000,000 shares of capital stock, consisting of (a) 400,000,000 shares of common stock and (b) 50,000,000 shares of Preferred Stock, par value $0.01 per share.
Common Stock
As of April 4, 2022, we had 34,479,057 shares of common stock outstanding. The following is a summary of the material terms and provisions of our common stock.
Authorized Capital Shares
Our authorized capital shares consist of 400,000,000 shares of common stock and 50,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.01 per share. All outstanding shares of our common stock are fully paid and nonassessable.
Voting Rights
Subject to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on transfer of stock, each outstanding share of our common stock entitles the holder to one vote on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders, including the election of directors and, except as provided with respect to any other class or series of stock, the holders of such shares will possess the exclusive voting power. Director nominees in an uncontested election are elected if the votes cast for such nominee’s election exceed the votes cast against such nominee’s election (with abstentions and broker non-votes not counted as a vote cast either “for” or “against” that director’s election). In the event of a contested election, as defined in our charter, a plurality voting standard will apply.
Dividend Rights
Subject to the preferential rights of any other class or series of stock and to the provisions of the charter regarding the restrictions on transfer of stock, holders of shares of our common stock are entitled to receive dividends on such stock when, as and if authorized by the Board out of funds legally available therefor.
Liquidation Rights
Subject to the preferential rights of any other class or series of stock, holders of shares of our common stock are entitled to share ratably in the assets of our Company legally available for distribution to our stockholders in the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up after payment of or adequate provision for all known debts and liabilities of our Company, including the preferential rights on dissolution of any class or classes of preferred stock.
Other Rights and Preferences
Holders of shares of our common stock have no preference, conversion, exchange, sinking fund, or redemption and have no preemptive rights to subscribe for any securities of our Company, and generally have no appraisal rights so long as our common stock is listed on a national securities exchange and except in very limited circumstances involving a merger where our stock is converted into any consideration other than stock of the successor in the merger and in which our directors, officers, and 5% or greater stockholders receive different consideration than stockholders generally. Subject to the provisions of the charter regarding the restrictions on transfer of stock, shares of our common stock will have equal dividend, liquidation and other rights.
Subject to the provisions of the charter regarding the restrictions on transfer of stock, we are not aware of any limitations on the rights to own our common stock, including rights of non-resident or
 
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foreign stockholders to hold or exercise voting rights on our common stock, imposed by foreign law or by our charter or bylaws.
Listing
The common stock is listed on the NYSE under the trading symbol “AHT.”
Power to Reclassify Shares of Our Capital Stock; Issuance of Additional Shares
Our charter authorizes the Board to classify or reclassify any unissued shares of stock from time to time in one or more classes or series of stock; including preferred stock, and to authorize the issuance of such shares. Prior to issuance of shares of each class or series of capital stock, the Board is required by Maryland law and by our charter to set, subject to our charter restrictions on the transfer of our capital stock, the terms, preferences, conversion or other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends or other distributions, qualifications and terms or conditions of redemption for each class or series. When issued, all shares of our capital stock offered by this Prospectus will be duly authorized, fully paid and nonassessable.
We believe that the power to issue additional shares of common stock or preferred stock and to classify or reclassify unissued shares of common stock or preferred stock and thereafter to issue the classified or reclassified shares provides us with increased flexibility in structuring possible future financings and acquisitions and in meeting other needs which might arise. These actions can be taken without stockholder approval, unless stockholder approval is required by applicable law or the rules of any national securities exchange or automated quotation system on which our securities may be listed or traded. Although we have no present intention of doing so, we could issue a class or series of capital stock that could delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change in control of us that might involve a premium price for holders of common stock or otherwise be in their best interest.
Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer
To assist us in complying with certain federal income tax requirements applicable to REITs, our charter contains certain restrictions relating to the ownership and transfer of our common stock. See “Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer” in the accompanying prospectus.
Transfer Agent
The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Computershare Trust Company, N.A.
 
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MATERIAL PROVISIONS OF MARYLAND LAW AND OF OUR CHARTER AND BYLAWS
The following is a summary of certain provisions of Maryland law and of our charter and bylaws. Copies of our charter and bylaws are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. See “Where You Can Find More Information.”
The Board of Directors
Our bylaws provide that the number of directors of our company may be established by our board of directors but may not be fewer than the minimum number permitted under the MGCL nor more than 15. Any vacancy will be filled, at any regular meeting or at any special meeting called for that purpose, by a majority of the remaining directors.
Pursuant to our charter, each member of our board of directors will serve one year terms. See “Description of Our common stock” for further information regarding the election of directors.
Business Combinations
Maryland law prohibits “business combinations” between a corporation and an interested stockholder or an affiliate of an interested stockholder for five years after the most recent date on which the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. These business combinations include a merger, consolidation, statutory share exchange, or, in circumstances specified in the statute, certain transfers of assets, certain stock issuances and transfers, liquidation plans and reclassifications involving interested stockholders and their affiliates as asset transfer or issuance or reclassification of equity securities. Maryland law defines an interested stockholder as:

any person who beneficially owns 10% or more of the voting power of our voting stock; or

an affiliate or associate of the corporation who, at any time within the two-year period prior to the date in question, was the beneficial owner of 10% or more of the voting power of the then-outstanding voting stock of the corporation.
A person is not an interested stockholder if the board of directors approves in advance the transaction by which the person otherwise would have become an interested stockholder. However, in approving the transaction, the board of directors may provide that its approval is subject to compliance, at or after the time of approval, with any terms and conditions determined by the board of directors.
After the five year prohibition, any business combination between a corporation and an interested stockholder generally must be recommended by the board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of at least:

80% of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of the then outstanding shares of common stock; and

two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of the common stock other than shares held by the interested stockholder with whom or with whose affiliate the business combination is to be effected or shares held by an affiliate or associate of the interested stockholder.
These super-majority vote requirements do not apply if certain fair price requirements set forth in the MGCL are satisfied.
The statute permits various exemptions from its provisions, including business combinations that are approved by the board of directors before the time that the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder.
Our charter includes a provision excluding the corporation from these provisions of the MGCL and, consequently, the five-year prohibition and the super-majority vote requirements will not apply to business combinations between us and any interested stockholder of ours unless we later amend our charter, with stockholder approval, to modify or eliminate this provision.
Control Share Acquisitions
The MGCL provides that “control shares” of a Maryland corporation acquired in a “control share acquisition” have no voting rights except to the extent approved at a special meeting by the affirmative vote
 
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of two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter, excluding shares of stock in a corporation in respect of which any of the following persons is entitled to exercise or direct the exercise of the voting power of shares of stock of the corporation in the election of directors: (i) a person who makes or proposes to make a control share acquisition, (ii) an officer of the corporation or (iii) an employee of the corporation who is also a director of the corporation. “Control shares” are voting shares of stock which, if aggregated with all other such shares of stock previously acquired by the acquiror or in respect of which the acquiror is able to exercise or direct the exercise of voting power (except solely by virtue of a revocable proxy), would entitle the acquiror to exercise voting power in electing directors within one of the following ranges of voting power: (i) one-tenth or more but less than one-third, (ii) one-third or more but less than a majority, or (iii) a majority or more of all voting power. Control shares do not include shares the acquiring person is then entitled to vote as a result of having previously obtained stockholder approval. A “control share acquisition” means the acquisition, directly or indirectly, by any person of ownership, or the power to direct the exercise of voting power with respect to, issued and outstanding control shares, subject to certain exceptions.
A person who has made or proposes to make a control share acquisition, upon satisfaction of certain conditions (including an undertaking to pay expenses), may compel our board of directors to call a special meeting of stockholders to be held within 50 days of demand to consider the voting rights of the shares. If no request for a meeting is made, the corporation may itself present the question at any stockholders meeting.
If voting rights are not approved at the meeting or if the acquiring person does not deliver an acquiring person statement as required by the statute, then, subject to certain conditions and limitations, the corporation may redeem any or all of the control shares (except those for which voting rights have previously been approved) for fair value determined, without regard to the absence of voting rights for the control shares, as of the date of the last control share acquisition by the acquiror or of any meeting of stockholders at which the voting rights of such shares are considered and not approved. If voting rights for control shares are approved at a stockholders meeting and the acquiror becomes entitled to vote a majority of the shares entitled to vote, all other stockholders may exercise appraisal rights. The fair value of the shares as determined for purposes of such appraisal rights may not be less than the highest price per share paid by the acquiror in the control share acquisition.
The control share acquisition statute does not apply to (i) shares acquired in a merger, consolidation or share exchange if the corporation is a party to the transaction or (ii) acquisitions approved or exempted by the charter or bylaws of the corporation at any time prior to the acquisition of the shares.
Our charter contains a provision exempting from the control share acquisition statute any and all acquisitions by any person of our common stock and, consequently, the applicability of the control share acquisitions unless we later amend our charter, with stockholder approval, to modify or eliminate this provision.
Amendment to Our Charter
Our charter may be amended only if declared advisable by the board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least two-thirds of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter.
Dissolution of Our Company
The dissolution of our company must be declared advisable by the board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of the holders of not less than two-thirds of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter.
Advance Notice of Director Nominations and New Business
Our bylaws provide that:

with respect to an annual meeting of stockholders, the only business to be considered and the only proposals to be acted upon will be those properly brought before the annual meeting:

pursuant to our notice of the meeting;
 
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by, or at the direction of, a majority of our board of directors; or

by a stockholder who is entitled to vote at the meeting and has complied with the advance notice procedures set forth in our bylaws;

with respect to special meetings of stockholders, only the business specified in our company’s notice of meeting may be brought before the meeting of stockholders unless otherwise provided by law; and

nominations of persons for election to our board of directors at any annual or special meeting of stockholders may be made only:

by, or at the direction of, our board of directors; or

by a stockholder who is entitled to vote at the meeting and has complied with the advance notice provisions set forth in our bylaws.
Anti-Takeover Effect of Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of Our Charter and Bylaws
The advance notice provisions of our bylaws could delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change of control of our company that might involve a premium price for holders of our common stock or that stockholders otherwise believe may be in their best interest. Likewise, if our company’s charter were to be amended to avail the corporation of the business combination provisions of the MGCL or to remove or modify the provision in the charter opting out of the control share acquisition provisions of the MGCL, these provisions of the MGCL could have similar anti-takeover effects.
Indemnification and Limitation of Directors’ and Officers’ Liability
Our charter and the partnership agreement provide for indemnification of our officers and directors against liabilities to the fullest extent permitted by the MGCL, as amended from time to time.
The MGCL permits a corporation to indemnify a director or officer who has been successful, on the merits or otherwise, in the defense of any proceeding to which he or she is made a party by reason of his or her service in that capacity. The MGCL permits a corporation to indemnify its present and former directors and officers, among others, against judgments, penalties, fines, settlements and reasonable expenses actually incurred by them in connection with any proceeding to which they may be made a party by reason of their service in those or other capacities unless it is established that:

an act or omission of the director or officer was material to the matter giving rise to the proceeding and:

was committed in bad faith; or

was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty; or

the director or officer actually received an improper personal benefit in money, property or services; or

in the case of any criminal proceeding, the director or officer had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful.
However, under the MGCL, a Maryland corporation may not indemnify for an adverse judgment in a suit by or in the right of the corporation (other than for expenses incurred in a successful defense of such an action) or for a judgment of liability on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received. In addition, the MGCL permits a corporation to advance reasonable expenses to a director or officer upon the corporation’s receipt of:

a written affirmation by the director or officer of his good faith belief that he has met the standard of conduct necessary for indemnification by the corporation; and

a written undertaking by the director or on the director’s behalf to repay the amount paid or reimbursed by the corporation if it is ultimately determined that the director did not meet the standard of conduct.
 
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The MGCL permits a Maryland corporation to include in its charter a provision limiting the liability of its directors and officers to the corporation and its stockholders for money damages except for liability resulting from actual receipt of an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services or active and deliberate dishonesty established by a final judgment as being material to the cause of action. Our charter contains such a provision which eliminates such liability to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law.
Our bylaws obligate us, to the fullest extent permitted by Maryland law in effect from time to time, to indemnify and, without requiring a preliminary determination of the ultimate entitlement to indemnification, pay or reimburse reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding to:

any present or former director or officer who is made a party to the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity; or

any individual who, while a director or officer of our company and at our request, serves or has served another corporation, real estate investment trust, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or any other enterprise as a director, officer, partner or trustee and who is made a party to the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity.
Our bylaws also obligate us to indemnify and advance expenses to any person who served a predecessor of ours in any of the capacities described in second and third bullet points above and to any employee or agent of our company or a predecessor of our company.
The partnership agreement of our operating partnership provides that we, as general partner, and our officers and directors are indemnified to the fullest extent permitted by law. See “Partnership Agreement — Exculpation and Indemnification of the General Partner.”
Insofar as the foregoing provisions permit indemnification of directors, officers or persons controlling us for liability arising under the Securities Act, we have been informed that in the opinion of the SEC, this indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.
 
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PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT
Management
Ashford Hospitality Limited Partnership, our operating partnership, has been organized as a Delaware limited partnership. One of our wholly-owned subsidiaries is the sole general partner of this partnership, and one of our subsidiaries holds limited partnership units in this partnership. A majority of the limited partnership units not owned by our company are owned by certain of our directors, executive officers and affiliates of such persons. In the future, we may issue additional interests in our operating partnership to third parties.
Pursuant to the partnership agreement of the operating partnership, we, as the sole general partner, generally have full, exclusive and complete responsibility and discretion in the management, operation and control of the partnership, including the ability to cause the partnership to enter into certain major transactions, including acquisitions, developments and dispositions of properties, borrowings and refinancings of existing indebtedness. No limited partner may take part in the operation, management or control of the business of the operating partnership by virtue of being a holder of limited partnership units.
Our subsidiary may not be removed as general partner of the partnership. Upon the bankruptcy or dissolution of the general partner, the general partner shall be deemed to be removed automatically.
The limited partners of our operating partnership have agreed that in the event of a conflict in the fiduciary duties owed (i) by us to our stockholders and (ii) by us, as general partner of the operating partnership, to those limited partners, we may act in the best interests of our stockholders without violating our fiduciary duties to the limited partners of the operating partnership or being liable for any resulting breach of our duties to the limited partners.
Transferability of Interests
General Partner.   The partnership agreement provides that we may not transfer our interest as a general partner (including by sale, disposition, merger or consolidation) except:

in connection with a merger of the operating partnership, a sale of substantially all of the assets of the operating partnership or other transaction in which the limited partners receive a certain amount of cash, securities or property; or

in connection with a merger of us or the general partner into another entity, if the surviving entity contributes substantially all its assets to the operating partnership and assumes the duties of the general partner under the operating partnership agreement.
Limited Partner.   The partnership agreement prohibits the sale, assignment, transfer, pledge or disposition of all or any portion of the limited partnership units without our consent, which we may give or withhold in our sole discretion. However, an individual partner may donate his units to his immediate family or a trust wholly owned by his immediate family, without our consent. The partnership agreement contains other restrictions on transfer if, among other things, that transfer:

would cause us to fail to comply with the REIT rules under the Code; or

would cause us to become a publicly-traded partnership under the Code.
Capital Contributions
The partnership agreement provides that if the partnership requires additional funds at any time in excess of funds available to the partnership from borrowing or capital contributions, we may borrow such funds from a financial institution or other lender and lend such funds to the partnership. Under the partnership agreement, we are obligated to contribute the proceeds of any offering of stock as additional capital to the partnership. The operating partnership is authorized to cause the partnership to issue partnership interests for less than fair market value if we conclude in good faith that such issuance is in both the partnership’s and our best interests.
 
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The partnership agreement provides that we may make additional capital contributions, including properties, to the partnership in exchange for additional partnership units. If we contribute additional capital to the partnership and receive additional partnership interests for such capital contribution, our percentage interests will be increased on a proportionate basis based on the amount of such additional capital contributions and the value of the partnership at the time of such contributions. Conversely, the percentage interests of the other limited partners will be decreased on a proportionate basis. In addition, if we contribute additional capital to the partnership and receive additional partnership interests for such capital contribution, the capital accounts of the partners will be adjusted upward or downward to reflect any unrealized gain or loss attributable to our properties as if there were an actual sale of such properties at the fair market value thereof. Limited partners have no preemptive right to make additional capital contributions.
The operating partnership could issue preferred partnership interests in connection with acquisitions of property or otherwise. Any such preferred partnership interests would have priority over common partnership interests with respect to distributions from the partnership, including the partnership interests that our wholly-owned subsidiaries own.
Redemption Rights
Under the partnership agreement, we have granted to each limited partner holding common units (other than our subsidiary) the right to redeem its limited partnership units. This right may be exercised at the election of a limited partner by giving us written notice, subject to some limitations. The purchase price for the limited partnership units to be redeemed will equal the fair market value of our common stock adjusted by a conversion factor, as determined in the partnership agreement. The purchase price for the limited partnership units may be paid in cash, or, in our discretion, by the issuance by us of a number of shares of our common stock equal to the number of limited partnership units with respect to which the rights are being exercised. However, no limited partner will be entitled to exercise its redemption rights to the extent that the issuance of common stock to the redeeming partner would be prohibited under our charter or, if after giving effect to such exercise, would cause any person to own, actually or constructively, more than 9.8% of our common stock, unless such ownership limit is waived by us in our sole discretion.
In all cases, however, no limited partner may exercise the redemption right for fewer than 1,000 partnership units or, if a limited partner holds fewer than 1,000 partnership units, all of the partnership units held by such limited partner.
Certain of our officers and employees of our advisor hold a special class of partnership units in our operating partnership referred to as long term incentive partnership units, or LTIP units. LTIP units vest over a number of years and whether vested or not, generally receive the same treatment as common units of our operating partnership, with the key difference being, at the time of the award, LTIP units do not have full economic parity with common units but can achieve such parity over time. The LTIP units will achieve parity with the common units upon the sale or deemed sale of all or substantially all of the assets of the partnership at a time when our stock is trading at some level in excess of the price it was trading at on the date of the LTIP issuance. More specifically, LTIP units will achieve full economic parity with common units in connection with (i) the actual sale of all or substantially all of the assets of our operating partnership or (ii) the hypothetical sale of such assets, which results from a capital account revaluation, as defined in the partnership agreement, for the operating partnership. A capital account revaluation generally occurs whenever there is an issuance of additional partnership interests or the redemption of partnership interests. If a sale, or deemed sale as a result of a capital account revaluation, occurs at a time when the operating partnership’s assets have sufficiently appreciated, the LTIP units will achieve full economic parity with the common units. However, in the absence of sufficient appreciation in the value of the assets of the operating partnership at the time a sale or deemed sale occurs, full economic parity would not be reached. If such parity is reached, vested LTIP units become convertible into an equal number of common units and at that time, the holder will have the redemption rights described above. Until and unless such parity is reached, the LTIP units are not redeemable. All of the LTIP units our operating partnership has issued have reached economic parity with the common units, except approximately 6,616 LTIP units issued in 2015, 770 LTIP units issued in 2018, 830 LTIP units issued in 2019 and 4,390 LTIP units issued in 2020 that have not yet achieved such parity.
 
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As of April 4, 2022, the aggregate number of shares of common stock issuable, at our option, upon exercise of the redemption rights by holders of common partnership units (including vested LTIP units that have reached economic parity with the common partnership units) is approximately 224,000. The number of shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of the redemption rights will be adjusted to account for share splits, mergers, consolidations or similar pro rata share transactions and changes in the conversion factor.
Conversion Rights
The holders of the LTIP units will have the right to convert vested LTIP units into ordinary common units on a one-for-one basis at any time after such LTIP units have achieved economic parity with the common units. No other limited partners have any conversion rights.
Operations
The partnership agreement requires the partnership to be operated in a manner that enables us to satisfy the requirements for being classified as a REIT, to minimize any excise tax liability imposed by the Code and to ensure that the partnership will not be classified as a “publicly traded partnership” taxable as a corporation under Section 7704 of the Code.
In addition to the administrative and operating costs and expenses incurred by the partnership, the partnership will pay all of our administrative costs and expenses. These expenses will be treated as expenses of the partnership and will generally include:

all expenses relating to our continuity of existence;

all expenses relating to offerings and registration of securities;

all expenses associated with the preparation and filing of any of our periodic reports under federal, state or local laws or regulations;

all expenses associated with our compliance with laws, rules and regulations promulgated by any regulatory body; and

all of our other operating or administrative costs incurred in the ordinary course of its business on behalf of the partnership.
Distributions
The partnership agreement provides that the partnership will make cash distributions in amounts and at such times as determined by us in our sole discretion, to us and other limited partners in accordance with the respective percentage interests of the partners in the partnership.
Upon liquidation of the partnership, after payment of, or adequate provisions for, debts and obligations of the partnership, including any partner loans, any remaining assets of the partnership will be distributed to us and the other limited partners with positive capital accounts in accordance with the respective positive capital account balances of the partners.
Allocations
Profits and losses of the partnership (including depreciation and amortization deductions) for each fiscal year generally are allocated to us and the other limited partners in accordance with the respective percentage interests of the partners in the partnership. All of the foregoing allocations are subject to compliance with the provisions of Code sections 704(b) and 704(c) and Treasury Regulations promulgated thereunder. The partnership will use the “traditional method” under Code section 704(c) for allocating items with respect to which the fair market value at the time of contribution differs from the adjusted tax basis at the time of contribution for a hotel.
Amendments
Generally, we, as the general partner of the operating partnership, may amend the partnership agreement without the consent of any limited partner to clarify the partnership agreement, to make changes
 
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of an inconsequential nature, to reflect the admission, substitution or withdrawal of limited partners, to reflect the issuance of additional partnership interests or if, in the opinion of counsel, necessary or appropriate to satisfy the Code with respect to partnerships or REITs or federal or state securities laws. However, any amendment which alters or changes the distribution or redemption rights of a limited partner (other than a change to reflect the seniority of any distribution or liquidation rights of any preferred units issued in accordance with the partnership agreement), changes the method for allocating profits and losses, imposes any obligation on the limited partners to make additional capital contributions or adversely affects the limited liability of the limited partners requires the consent of holders of 662/3% of the limited partnership units, excluding our indirect ownership of limited partnership units. Other amendments require approval of the general partner and holders of 50% of the limited partnership units including limited partnership units we indirectly hold.
In addition, the operating partnership may be amended, without the consent of any limited partner, in the event that we or any of our subsidiaries engages in a merger or consolidation with another entity and immediately after such transaction the surviving entity contributes to the operating partnership substantially all of the assets of such surviving entity and the surviving entity agrees to assume our subsidiary’s obligation as general partner of the partnership. In such case, the surviving entity will amend the operating partnership agreement to arrive at a new method for calculating the amount a limited partner is to receive upon redemption or conversion of a partnership unit (such method to approximate the existing method as much as possible).
Exculpation and Indemnification of the General Partner
The partnership agreement of our operating partnership provides that neither the general partner, nor any of its directors and officers will be liable to the partnership or to any of its partners as a result of errors in judgment or mistakes of fact or law or of any act or omission, if the general partner acted in good faith.
In addition, the partnership agreement requires our operating partnership to indemnify and hold the general partner and its directors, officers and any other person it designates, harmless from and against any and all claims arising from operations of the operating partnership in which any such indemnitee may be involved, or is threatened to be involved, as a party or otherwise, unless it is established that:

the act or omission of the indemnitee was material to the matter giving rise to the proceeding and was committed in bad faith or was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty;

the indemnitee actually received an improper personal benefit in money, property or services; or

in the case of any criminal proceeding, the indemnitee had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful.
No indemnitee may subject any partner of our operating partnership to personal liability with respect to this indemnification obligation as this indemnification obligation will be satisfied solely out of the assets of the partnership.
Term
The partnership has a perpetual life, unless dissolved upon:

the general partner’s bankruptcy or dissolution or withdrawal (unless the limited partners elect to continue the partnership);

the passage of 90 days after the sale or other disposition of all or substantially all the assets of the partnership;

the redemption of all partnership units (other than those held by us, if any); or

an election by us in our capacity as the sole owner of the general partner.
Tax Matters
For any taxable year beginning on or before December 31, 2017, the general partner is and will be the tax matters partner of the operating partnership, and for any taxable year beginning on or after January 1,
 
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2018, the general partner will be the partnership representative of the operating partnership. We have the authority to make tax elections under the Code on behalf of the partnership. The net income or net loss of the operating partnership will generally be allocated to us and the limited partners in accordance with our and their respective percentage interests in the partnership, subject to compliance with the provisions of the Code.
 
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DISTRIBUTION POLICY
See “Description of Capital Stock — Common Stock — Dividends and Our Distribution Policy” for further information on our distribution policy. To qualify as a REIT, we must distribute to our stockholders an amount at least equal to:
(i)
90% of our REIT taxable income, determined before the deduction for dividends paid and excluding any net capital gain (which does not necessarily equal net income as calculated in accordance with GAAP); plus
(ii)
90% of the excess of our net income from foreclosure property over the tax imposed on such income by the Code; less
(iii)
any excess non-cash income (as determined under the Code). See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations” in the accompanying prospectus.
Distributions made by us are authorized and determined by our board of directors in its sole discretion out of funds legally available therefor and are dependent upon a number of factors, including restrictions under applicable law, actual and projected financial condition, liquidity, EBITDA, funds from operations and results of operations, the revenue we actually receive from our properties, our operating expenses, our debt service requirements, our capital expenditures, prohibitions and other limitations under our financing arrangements, our REIT taxable income, the annual REIT distribution requirements and such other factors as our board of directors deems relevant. For more information regarding risk factors that could materially and adversely affect our ability to make distributions, please see “Risk Factors” in this prospectus supplement. We expect that, at least initially, our distributions may exceed our net income under GAAP because of non-cash expenses included in net income. To the extent that our cash available for distribution is less than 90% of our REIT taxable income, we may consider various means to cover any such shortfall, including borrowing under our secured revolving credit facility or other loans, selling certain of our assets or using a portion of the net proceeds we receive from this or future offerings of equity, equity-related or debt securities or declaring taxable stock dividends. In addition, our charter allows us to issue preferred stock that could have a preference on distributions, including the Series D Cumulative Preferred Stock, Series F Cumulative Preferred Stock, Series G Cumulative Preferred Stock, Series H Cumulative Preferred Stock and Series I Cumulative Preferred Stock (“Preferred Stock”). The distribution preference on the Preferred Stock and any additional Preferred Stock we may issue could limit our ability to make distributions to the holders of our common stock. We cannot assure you that our distribution policy will not change in the future.
Distributions in excess of a stockholder’s allocable share of our current and accumulated earnings and profits will not be taxable to a taxable U.S. stockholder under current U.S. federal income tax law to the extent those distributions do not exceed the stockholder’s adjusted tax basis in his or her shares, but rather will reduce the adjusted basis of the shares. In that case, the gain (or loss) recognized on the sale of those shares or upon our liquidation will be increased (or decreased) accordingly. To the extent those distributions exceed a taxable U.S. stockholder’s adjusted tax basis in his or her shares, they generally will be treated as a gain realized from the taxable disposition of those shares. The percentage of distributions to our stockholders that exceeds our current and accumulated earnings and profits may vary substantially from year to year. For a more complete discussion of the tax treatment of distributions to holders of our capital stock, see “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations” in the accompanying prospectus.
 
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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
We have entered into an equity distribution agreement, dated as of April 11, 2022, with Virtu Americas LLC, as sales agent, under which we may from time to time offer and sell shares of common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $100,000,000. The sales of our shares of common stock, if any, pursuant to this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus may be made in negotiated transactions, which may include block trades, or transactions that are deemed to be “at-the-market” offerings as defined in Rule 415 under the Securities Act, including sales made directly on the New York Stock Exchange, the existing trading market for our common stock, or sales made to or through a market maker other than on an exchange.
Upon its acceptance of a placement notice from us, the sales agent, if acting as agent, will use commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal sales and trading practices to sell our shares of common stock under the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in the equity distribution agreement and such placement notice. The placement notice that we deliver will set forth the number of shares to be issued, the time period during which sales are requested to be made, any limitation on the number of shares that may be sold in any one day and any minimum price below which sales may not be made or a formula pursuant to which such minimum price shall be determined. Our shares of common stock sold pursuant to the equity distribution agreement will be sold through the sales agents on any given day. We or the sales agent may suspend the sale of shares of common stock upon proper notice and subject to other conditions.
The sales agent will provide written confirmation to us no later than the opening of the trading day on the New York Stock Exchange on the day following the trading day in which our shares of common stock were sold under the equity distribution agreement. Each confirmation will include the number of shares sold on such day, the net proceeds to us and the compensation payable by us to the sales agent in connection with the sales.
We will pay the sales agent commissions for its services in acting as agent and/or principal in the sale of shares of common stock. The sales agent will receive from us a commission of approximately 1.0% of the gross sales price of all shares sold through it as sales agent under the equity distribution agreement. We estimate that the total expenses for the offering, excluding compensation payable to the sales agents under the terms of the equity distribution agreements, will be approximately $100,000.
We also may sell some or all of the shares of common stock to the sales agent as principal for its own account at a price agreed upon at the time of sale. If we sell common stock to the sales agent as principal, then we will enter into a separate terms agreement with the sales agent, and the sale will be made pursuant to the terms thereunder.
Settlement for sales of shares of common stock generally will occur on the second trading day following the date on which any sales are made, unless some other date is agreed upon by us and the sales agent in connection with a particular transaction, in return for payment of the net proceeds to us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.
We will report at least quarterly the number of shares of common stock sold through the sales agents under the equity distribution agreement, the net proceeds to us and the compensation paid by us to the sales agent in connection with the sales of shares of common stock.
In connection with the sale of shares of common stock on our behalf, the sales agent may be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act, and the compensation of the sales agent may be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed to indemnify the sales agent against specified liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or to contribute to payments that the sales agent may be required to make because of those liabilities.
The sales agent and its affiliates are full service financial institutions engaged in various activities, which may include securities trading, investment banking, financial advisory, investment management, principal investment, hedging, financing and brokerage activities. The sales agents or its affiliates from time to time perform investment banking and other financial services for us and our affiliates for which they
 
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receive advisory or transaction fees, as applicable, plus out-of-pocket expenses, of the nature and in amounts customary in the industry for these financial services.
In addition, in the ordinary course of its various business activities, the sales agent and its affiliates may make or hold a broad array of investments and actively trade debt and equity securities (or related derivative securities) and financial instruments (including bank loans) for its own account and for the accounts of its customers and may at any time hold long and short positions in such securities and instruments. Such investment and securities activities may involve securities and instruments issued by us.
The offering of our shares of common stock under any equity distribution agreement will terminate upon the earlier of (i) the sale of shares having an aggregate offering price of $100,000,000 and (ii) the termination of the equity distribution agreement by the sales agent or us.
 
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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other documents with the SEC under the Exchange Act. You may read and copy any materials that we file with the SEC without charge at the public reference room of the Securities and Exchange Commission, 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, DC 20549-1090. Information about the operation of the public reference room may be obtained by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0300. Also, the SEC maintains an internet website that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers, including the Company, that file electronically with the SEC. The public can obtain any documents that we file with the SEC at www.sec.gov.
We also make available free of charge on or through our internet website (www.ahtreit.com) our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and, if applicable, amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC.
This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the SEC. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus do not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement and exhibits and schedules to the registration statement. For further information with respect to our company and our securities, reference is made to the registration statement, including the exhibits and schedules to the registration statement. Statements contained in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus as to the contents of any contract or other document referred to in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are not necessarily complete and, where that contract is an exhibit to the registration statement, each statement is qualified in all respects by reference to the exhibit to which the reference relates.
 
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INCORPORATION OF INFORMATION BY REFERENCE
The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” into this prospectus supplement the information we file with the SEC. This permits us to disclose important information to you by referencing these filed documents. Any information referenced in this way is considered part of this prospectus supplement. Any subsequent information filed with the SEC will automatically be deemed to update and supersede the information in this prospectus supplement and in our other filings with the SEC. Any such updated or superseded statement will not be deemed, except as so updated or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus supplement. We incorporate by reference the documents listed below and any filings made by us in the future with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act and prior to the sale of all shares of common stock offered hereby or termination of the registration statement of which this prospectus supplement is a part; provided, however, we are not incorporating by reference any information furnished (but not filed) under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of any Current Report on Form 8-K:



Our Current Reports on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on January 6, 2022, January 18, 2022, January 19, 2022, January 24, 2022, February 23, 2022, February 24, 2022, March 9, 2022, March 16, 2022, March 18, 2022, March 23, 2022 and April 6, 2022 (except for the information furnished under Items 2.02 or 7.01 and the exhibits furnished therewith); and

The information about us contained in this prospectus should be read together with the information in the documents incorporated by reference. You may request a copy of any or all of these filings, at no cost, by writing or telephoning us at 14185 Dallas Parkway, Suite 1200, Dallas, Texas 75254, phone number (972) 490-9600.
LEGAL MATTERS
Certain legal matters relating to this offering will be passed upon for us by Cadwalader, Wickersham & Taft LLP.  Hogan Lovells US LLP will issue an opinion to us regarding certain matters of Maryland law, including the validity of the common stock offered hereby. In addition, the description of federal income tax consequences contained in the section of the accompanying prospectus entitled “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations” will be based on the opinion of O’Melveny & Myers LLP.  Hunton Andrews Kurth LLP will act as counsel to the sales agent.
EXPERTS
The consolidated financial statements and schedule as of December 31, 2021 and 2020 and for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2021 and management’s assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2021 incorporated by reference in this Prospectus and in the Registration Statement have been so incorporated in reliance on the reports of BDO USA, LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, incorporated herein by reference, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.
 
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COMMON STOCK
PREFERRED STOCK
DEPOSITARY SHARES
DEBT SECURITIES
WARRANTS
RIGHTS
UNITS
This prospectus relates to common stock, preferred stock, depositary shares, debt securities, warrants, rights and units that we may sell from time to time in one or more offerings up to a total dollar amount of $300,000,000 on terms to be determined at the time of sale. We will provide specific terms of these securities in supplements to this prospectus. You should read this prospectus and any supplement carefully before you invest. This prospectus may not be used to offer and sell securities unless accompanied by a prospectus supplement for those securities.
The specific terms of each series or class of the securities will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement and may include limitations on actual or constructive ownership and restrictions on transfer of the securities, in each case as may be appropriate to preserve the status of our Company as a real estate investment trust, or REIT.
The applicable prospectus supplement will also contain information, where applicable, about certain U.S. federal income tax consequences relating to, and any listing on a securities exchange of, the securities covered by such prospectus supplement.
These securities may be sold directly by us, through dealers or agents designated from time to time, to or through underwriters or through a combination of these methods. See “Plan of Distribution” in this prospectus for more information. We may also describe the plan of distribution for any particular offering of these securities in any applicable prospectus supplement. If any agents, underwriters or dealers are involved in the sale of any securities in respect of which this prospectus is being delivered, we will disclose their names and the nature of our arrangements with them in a prospectus supplement. The net proceeds we expect to receive from any such sale will also be included in a prospectus supplement. No securities may be sold without delivery of this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement describing the method and terms of the offering of such series of securities.
Investing in our securities involves risks. See “Risk Factors” on page 4 for information regarding risks associated with an investment in our securities.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
The date of this prospectus is April 5, 2022

 
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You should rely only on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. We have not authorized anyone else to provide you with different information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. An offer to sell these securities will not be made in any jurisdiction where the offer and sale is not permitted. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, as well as information we previously filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) and incorporated by reference, is accurate as of the date on the front cover of this prospectus only. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since that date.
 
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OUR COMPANY
We are an externally-advised real estate investment trust (“REIT”). While our portfolio currently consists of both upscale hotels and upper upscale full-service hotels, our investment strategy is predominantly focused on investing in upper upscale full-service hotels in the United States that have a revenue per available room (“RevPAR”) generally less than two times the U.S. national average. We were formed as a Maryland corporation in May 2003. We are advised by Ashford Hospitality Advisors LLC (“Ashford LLC”), a subsidiary of Ashford Inc. We own our lodging investments and conduct our business through Ashford Hospitality Limited Partnership (“Ashford Trust OP”), our operating partnership. Ashford OP General Partner LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company, serves as the sole general partner of our operating partnership.
Our hotel properties are primarily branded under the widely recognized upscale and upper upscale brands of Marriott, Hilton, Hyatt and Intercontinental Hotel Group. As of December 31, 2021, we owned interests in the following:

100 consolidated hotel properties, which represent 22,313 total rooms;

85 hotel condominium units at WorldQuest Resort in Orlando, Florida (“WorldQuest”);

16.7% ownership in OpenKey, Inc. with a carrying value of $2.8 million; and

32.5% ownership in 815 Commerce Managing Member LLC (“815 Commerce MM”) with a carrying value of $8.5 million.
For U.S. federal income tax purposes, we have elected to be treated as a REIT, which imposes limitations related to our operations. As of December 31, 2021, our 100 hotel properties were leased or owned by our wholly-owned subsidiaries that are treated as taxable REIT subsidiaries for U.S. federal income tax purposes (collectively, these subsidiaries are referred to as “Ashford TRS”). Ashford TRS then engages third-party or affiliated hotel management companies to operate the hotels under management contracts. Hotel operating results related to these properties are included in the consolidated statements of operations.
We are advised by Ashford LLC through an advisory agreement. All of the hotel properties in our portfolio are currently asset-managed by Ashford LLC. We do not have any employees. All of the services that might be provided by employees are provided to us by Ashford LLC.
We do not operate any of our hotel properties directly; instead we employ hotel management companies to operate them for us under management contracts. Remington Hotels, a subsidiary of Ashford Inc., manages 68 of our 100 hotel properties and WorldQuest. Third-party management companies manage the remaining hotel properties.
Ashford Inc. also provides other products and services to us or our hotel properties through certain entities in which Ashford Inc. has an ownership interest. These products and services include, but are not limited to, project management services, debt placement and related services, audio visual services, real estate advisory services, insurance claims services, hypoallergenic premium rooms, broker-dealer and distribution services and mobile key technology. Effective December 31, 2020, the Investment Management Agreement with Ashford Investment Management, LLC (“AIM”) was terminated.
As of December 31, 2021, Mr. Monty J. Bennett and Mr. Archie Bennett, Jr. together owned approximately 610,246 shares of Ashford Inc. common stock, which represented an approximate 20.2% ownership interest in Ashford Inc., and owned 18,758,600 shares of Ashford Inc. Series D Convertible Preferred Stock, which was exercisable (at an exercise price of $117.50 per share) into an additional approximate 3,991,191 shares of Ashford Inc. common stock, which if exercised would have increased the Bennetts’ ownership interest in Ashford Inc. to 65.6%. The 18,758,600 shares of Series D Convertible Preferred Stock owned by Mr. Monty J. Bennett and Mr. Archie Bennett, Jr. include 360,000 shares owned by trusts.
Our principal executive offices are located at 14185 Dallas Parkway, Suite 1200, Dallas, Texas 75254. Our telephone number is (972) 490-9600. Our website is www.ahtreit.com. The contents of our website are not a part of this prospectus. Shares of our common stock are traded on the New York Stock Exchange (the “NYSE”) under the symbol “AHT.”
 
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RISK FACTORS
An investment in our securities involves various risks. You should carefully consider the risk factors incorporated by reference to our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and the other information contained in this prospectus, as updated by our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and subsequent filings under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, and the risk factors and other information contained in the applicable prospectus supplement before acquiring any of our securities.
ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus is part of a shelf registration statement. We may sell, from time to time, in one or more offerings, any combinations of the securities described in this prospectus. This prospectus only provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we sell securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that contains specific information about the terms of the securities. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should read both this prospectus and any prospectus supplement together with the additional information described below under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information.”
FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
Throughout this prospectus, we make forward-looking statements that are subject to risks and uncertainties. Forward-looking statements are generally identifiable by use of forward-looking terminology such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “potential,” “intend,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “approximately,” “believe,” “could,” “project,” “predict,” or other similar words or expressions. Additionally, statements regarding the following subjects are forward-looking by their nature:

the impact of the novel coronavirus disease (“COVID-19”) pandemic and numerous governmental travel restrictions and other orders on our business, including one or more possible recurrences of COVID-19 cases causing state and local governments to reinstate travel restrictions;

our business and investment strategy;

anticipated or expected purchases or sales of assets;

our projected operating results;

completion of any pending transactions;

our ability to restructure existing property level indebtedness;

our ability to secure additional financing to enable us to operate our business during the pendency of COVID-19-related business weakness, which has materially impacted our operating cash flows and cash balances;

our understanding of our competition;

market trends;

projected capital expenditures; and

the impact of technology on our operations and business.
Such forward-looking statements are based on our beliefs, assumptions, and expectations of our future performance taking into account all information currently known to us. These beliefs, assumptions, and expectations can change as a result of many potential events or factors, not all of which are known to us. If a change occurs, our business, financial condition, liquidity, results of operations, plans, and other objectives may vary materially from those expressed in our forward-looking statements. You should carefully consider this risk when you make an investment decision concerning our securities. Additionally, the following factors could cause actual results to vary from our forward-looking statements:

the factors discussed in this prospectus and in the documents incorporated herein, including those set forth in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC, including under the sections entitled “Risk Factors,” “Legal Proceedings,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of
 
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Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” “Business,” and “Properties,” as updated in our subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and other filings under the Exchange Act;

adverse effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, including a significant reduction in business and personal travel and travel restrictions in regions where our hotels are located, and one or more possible recurrences of COVID-19 cases causing a further reduction in business and personal travel and potential reinstatement of travel restrictions by state or local governments;

ongoing negotiations with our lenders regarding potential forbearance or the exercise by our lenders of their remedies for default under our loan agreements;

actions by our lender to accelerate the loan balance and foreclose on the hotel properties that are security for our loan that is in default;

actions by the lenders of our senior secured credit facility to foreclose on our assets which are pledged as collateral;

general volatility of the capital markets and the market price of our securities;

general and economic business conditions affecting the lodging and travel industry;

changes in our business or investment strategy;

availability, terms, and deployment of capital;

unanticipated increases in financing and other costs, including a rise in interest rates;

changes in our industry and the market in which we operate, interest rates, or local economic conditions;

the degree and nature of our competition;

actual and potential conflicts of interest with Ashford Inc. and its subsidiaries (including Ashford LLC, Remington Hotels and Premier Project Management LLC, a subsidiary of Ashford LLC), Braemar Hotels & Resorts Inc. (together with its subsidiaries, “Braemar”), our executive officers and our non-independent directors;

changes in personnel of Ashford LLC or the lack of availability of qualified personnel;

changes in governmental regulations, accounting rules, tax rates and similar matters;

legislative and regulatory changes, including changes to the Code, and related rules, regulations and interpretations governing the taxation of REITs;

limitations imposed on our business and our ability to satisfy complex rules in order for us to qualify as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes; and

future sales and issuances of our common stock or other securities might result in dilution and could cause the price of our common stock or other securities to decline.
When considering forward-looking statements, you should keep in mind the risk factors and other cautionary statements in this prospectus could cause our actual results and performance to differ significantly from those contained in our forward-looking statements. Additionally, many of these risks and uncertainties are currently amplified by and will continue to be amplified by, or in the future may be amplified by, the COVID-19 outbreak and the numerous government travel restrictions imposed in response thereto. The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic impacts us will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted with confidence, including the scope, severity and duration of the pandemic, the actions taken to contain the pandemic or mitigate its impact, and the direct and indirect economic effects of the pandemic and containment measures, among others. Accordingly, we cannot guarantee future results or performance. Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on any of these forward-looking statements, which reflect our views as of the date of this prospectus. Furthermore, we do not intend to update any of our forward-looking statements after the date of this prospectus to conform these statements to actual results and performance, except as may be required by applicable law.
 
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USE OF PROCEEDS
Unless we indicate otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, we intend to contribute the net proceeds from any sale of the securities pursuant to this prospectus to our operating partnership. Our operating partnership will subsequently use the net proceeds received from us to potentially acquire or develop additional properties and for general corporate purposes, which may include payment of dividends, the repayment of existing indebtedness and capital expenditures for improvements to the properties in our portfolio. Pending application of cash proceeds, we may invest the net proceeds in interest-bearing accounts, money market accounts and interest-bearing securities in a manner that is consistent with our intention to qualify for taxation as a REIT. Such investments may include, for example, government and government agency certificates, government bonds, certificates of deposit, interest-bearing bank deposits, money market accounts and mortgage loan participations. Further details regarding the use of the net proceeds from the sale of a specific series or class of the securities will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.
DESCRIPTION OF OUR CAPITAL STOCK
General
We were formed under the laws of the State of Maryland. Rights of our stockholders are governed by the Maryland General Corporation Law, or MGCL, our charter and our bylaws. The following is a summary of the material provisions of our capital stock. Copies of our charter and bylaws are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. See “Where You Can Find More Information.”
Authorized Stock
Our charter provides that we have authority to issue up to 450,000,000 shares of capital stock, consisting of (a) 400,000,000 shares of common stock and (b) 50,000,000 shares of Preferred Stock, par value $0.01 per share.
Power to Issue Additional Shares of Our Common Stock and Preferred Stock
We believe that the power of our board of directors, without stockholder approval, to issue additional authorized but unissued shares of our common stock or preferred stock and to classify or reclassify unissued shares of our common stock or preferred stock and thereafter to cause us to issue such classified or reclassified shares of stock provides us with flexibility in structuring possible future financings and acquisitions and in meeting other needs which might arise. The additional classes or series, as well as the common stock, will be available for issuance without further action by our stockholders, unless stockholder consent is required by applicable law or the rules of any stock exchange or automated quotation system on which our securities may be listed or traded. Although our board of directors does not currently intend to do so, it could authorize us to issue an additional class or series of stock that could, depending upon the terms of the particular class or series, delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change of control of our Company, even if such transaction or change of control involves a premium price for our stockholders or stockholders believe that such transaction or change of control may be in their best interests.
Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer
In order for us to qualify as a REIT under the Code, not more than 50% of the value of the outstanding shares of our stock may be owned, actually or constructively, by five or fewer individuals (as defined in the Code to include certain entities) during the last half of a taxable year (other than the first year for which an election to be a REIT has been made by us). In addition, if we, or one or more owners (actually or constructively) of 10% or more of us, actually or constructively owns 10% or more of a tenant of ours (or a tenant of any partnership in which we are a partner), the rent received by us (either directly or through any such partnership) from such tenant will not be qualifying income for purposes of the REIT gross income tests of the Code. Our stock must also be beneficially owned by 100 or more persons during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months or during a proportionate part of a shorter taxable year (other than the first year for which an election to be a REIT has been made by us).
 
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Our charter contains restrictions on the ownership and transfer of our capital stock that are intended to assist us in complying with these requirements and continuing to qualify as a REIT. The relevant sections of our charter provide that, subject to the exceptions described below, no person or persons acting as a group may own, or be deemed to own by virtue of the attribution provisions of the Code, more than (i) 9.8% of the lesser of the number or value of shares of our common stock outstanding or (ii) 9.8% of the lesser of the number or value of the issued and outstanding preferred or other shares of any class or series of our stock. We refer to this restriction as the “ownership limit.”
The ownership attribution rules under the Code are complex and may cause stock owned actually or constructively by a group of related individuals and/or entities to be owned constructively by one individual or entity. As a result, the acquisition of less than 9.8% of our common stock (or the acquisition of an interest in an entity that owns, actually or constructively, our common stock) by an individual or entity, could, nevertheless cause that individual or entity, or another individual or entity, to own constructively in excess of 9.8% of our outstanding common stock and thereby subject the common stock to the ownership limit.
Our board of directors may, in its sole discretion, waive the ownership limit with respect to one or more stockholders who would not be treated as “individuals” for purposes of the Code if it determines that such ownership will not cause any “individual’s” beneficial ownership of shares of our capital stock to jeopardize our status as a REIT (for example, by causing any tenant of ours to be considered a “related party tenant” for purposes of the REIT qualification rules).
As a condition of our waiver, our board of directors may require an opinion of counsel or IRS ruling satisfactory to our board of directors, and/or representations or undertakings from the applicant with respect to preserving our REIT status.
In connection with the waiver of the ownership limit or at any other time, our board of directors may decrease the ownership limit for all other persons and entities; provided, however, that the decreased ownership limit will not be effective for any person or entity whose percentage ownership in our capital stock is in excess of such decreased ownership limit until such time as such person or entity’s percentage of our capital stock equals or falls below the decreased ownership limit, but any further acquisition of our capital stock in excess of such percentage ownership of our capital stock will be in violation of the ownership limit. Additionally, the new ownership limit may not allow five or fewer “individuals” ​(as defined for purposes of the REIT ownership restrictions under the Code) to beneficially own more than 49.0% of the value of our outstanding capital stock.
Our charter provisions further prohibit:

any person from actually or constructively owning shares of our capital stock that would result in us being “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Code or otherwise cause us to fail to qualify as a REIT; and

any person from transferring shares of our capital stock if such transfer would result in shares of our stock being beneficially owned by fewer than 100 persons (determined without reference to any rules of attribution).
Any person who acquires or attempts or intends to acquire beneficial or constructive ownership of shares of our common stock that will or may violate any of the foregoing restrictions on transferability and ownership will be required to give notice immediately to us and provide us with such other information as we may request in order to determine the effect of such transfer on our status as a REIT. The foregoing provisions on transferability and ownership will not apply if our board of directors determines that it is no longer in our best interests to qualify, or to continue to qualify, as a REIT.
Pursuant to our charter, if any purported transfer of our capital stock or any other event would otherwise result in any person violating the ownership limits or the other restrictions in our charter, then any such purported transfer will be void and of no force or effect with respect to the purported transferee or owner (collectively referred to hereinafter as the “purported owner”) as to that number of shares in excess of the ownership limit (rounded up to the nearest whole share). The number of shares in excess of the ownership limit will be automatically transferred to, and held by, a trust for the exclusive benefit of one or
 
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more charitable organizations selected by us. The trustee of the trust will be designated by us and must be unaffiliated with us and with any purported owner. The automatic transfer will be effective as of the close of business on the business day prior to the date of the violative transfer or other event that results in a transfer to the trust. Any dividend or other distribution paid to the purported owner, prior to our discovery that the shares had been automatically transferred to a trust as described above, must be repaid to the trustee upon demand for distribution to the beneficiary of the trust and all dividends and other distributions paid by us with respect to such “excess” shares prior to the sale by the trustee of such shares shall be paid to the trustee for the beneficiary. If the transfer to the trust as described above is not automatically effective, for any reason, to prevent violation of the applicable ownership limit, then our charter provides that the transfer of the excess shares will be void. Subject to Maryland law, effective as of the date that such excess shares have been transferred to the trust, the trustee shall have the authority (at the trustee’s sole discretion and subject to applicable law) (i) to rescind as void any vote cast by a purported owner prior to our discovery that such shares have been transferred to the trust and (ii) to recast such vote in accordance with the desires of the trustee acting for the benefit of the beneficiary of the trust, provided that if we have already taken irreversible action, then the trustee shall not have the authority to rescind and recast such vote.
Shares of our capital stock transferred to the trustee are deemed offered for sale to us, or our designee, at a price per share equal to the lesser of (i) the price paid by the purported owner for the shares (or, if the event which resulted in the transfer to the trust did not involve a purchase of such shares of our capital stock at market price, the market price on the day of the event which resulted in the transfer of such shares of our capital stock to the trust) and (ii) the market price on the date we, or our designee, accepts such offer. We have the right to accept such offer until the trustee has sold the shares of our capital stock held in the trust pursuant to the clauses discussed below. Upon a sale to us, the interest of the charitable beneficiary in the shares sold terminates and the trustee must distribute the net proceeds of the sale to the purported owner and any dividends or other distributions held by the trustee with respect to such capital stock will be paid to the charitable beneficiary.
If we do not buy the shares, the trustee must, within 20 days of receiving notice from us of the transfer of shares to the trust, sell the shares to a person or entity designated by the trustee who could own the shares without violating the ownership limits. After that, the trustee must distribute to the purported owner an amount equal to the lesser of (i) the net price paid by the purported owner for the shares (or, if the event which resulted in the transfer to the trust did not involve a purchase of such shares at market price, the market price on the day of the event which resulted in the transfer of such shares of our capital stock to the trust) and (ii) the net sales proceeds received by the trust for the shares. Any proceeds in excess of the amount distributable to the purported owner will be distributed to the beneficiary.
Our charter also provides that “Benefit Plan Investors” ​(as defined in our charter) may not hold, individually or in the aggregate, 25% or more of the value of any class or series of shares of our capital stock to the extent such class or series does not constitute “Publicly Offered Securities” ​(as defined in our charter).
All persons who own, directly or by virtue of the attribution provisions of the Code, more than 5% (or such other percentage as provided in the regulations promulgated under the Code) of the lesser of the number or value of the shares of our outstanding capital stock must give written notice to us within 30 days after the end of each calendar year. In addition, each stockholder will, upon demand, be required to disclose to us in writing such information with respect to the direct, indirect and constructive ownership of shares of our stock as our board of directors deems reasonably necessary to comply with the provisions of the Code applicable to a REIT, to comply with the requirements or any taxing authority or governmental agency or to determine any such compliance.
All certificates representing shares of our capital stock bear a legend referring to the restrictions described above.
These ownership limits could delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change of control of our Company that might involve a premium price over the then prevailing market price for the holders of some, or a majority, of our outstanding shares of common stock or which such holders might believe to be otherwise in their best interest.
 
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Transfer Agent and Registrar
The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock and preferred stock is Computershare Trust Company, N.A.
DESCRIPTION OF OUR COMMON STOCK
The following description of our common stock sets forth certain general terms and provisions of our common stock to which any prospectus supplement may relate, including a prospectus supplement providing that common stock will be issuable upon conversion or exchange of our debt securities or preferred stock or upon the exercise of warrants or rights to purchase our common stock.
All shares of our common stock covered by this prospectus will be duly authorized, fully paid and nonassessable. Subject to the preferential rights of any other class or series of stock and to the provisions of the charter regarding the restrictions on transfer of stock, holders of shares of our common stock are entitled to receive dividends on such stock when, as and if authorized by our board of directors out of funds legally available therefor and declared by us and to share ratably in the assets of our Company legally available for distribution to our stockholders in the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up after payment of or adequate provision for all known debts and liabilities of our Company, including the preferential rights on dissolution of any class or classes of preferred stock.
Subject to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on transfer of stock, each outstanding share of our common stock entitles the holder to one vote on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders, including the election of directors and, except as provided with respect to any other class or series of stock, the holders of such shares will possess the exclusive voting power. Director nominees in an uncontested election are elected if the votes cast for such nominee’s election exceed the votes cast against such nominee’s election (with abstentions and broker non-votes not counted as a vote cast either “for” or “against” that director’s election). In the event of a contested election, as defined in our charter, a plurality voting standard will continue to apply.
Holders of shares of our common stock have no preference, conversion, exchange, sinking fund, redemption or appraisal rights and have no preemptive rights to subscribe for any securities of our Company. Subject to the provisions of the charter regarding the restrictions on transfer of stock, shares of our common stock will have equal dividend, liquidation and other rights.
Under the MGCL, a Maryland corporation generally cannot dissolve, amend its charter, merge, consolidate, transfer all or substantially all of its assets, engage in a statutory share exchange or engage in similar transactions outside the ordinary course of business unless declared advisable by the board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders holding at least two-thirds of the shares entitled to vote on the matter unless a lesser percentage (but not less than a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter) is set forth in the corporation’s charter. Our charter does not provide for a lesser percentage of the shares entitled to vote for these matters. However, Maryland law permits a corporation to transfer all or substantially all of its assets without the approval of the stockholders of the corporation to one or more persons if all of the equity interests of the person or persons are owned, directly or indirectly, by the corporation. Because operating assets may be held by a corporation’s subsidiaries, as in our situation, this may mean that a subsidiary of a corporation can transfer all of its assets without a vote of the corporation’s stockholders.
Our charter authorizes our board of directors to reclassify any unissued shares of our common stock into other classes or series of classes of stock and to establish the number of shares in each class or series and to set the preferences, conversion and other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends or other distributions, qualifications or terms or conditions of redemption for each such class or series.
DESCRIPTION OF OUR PREFERRED STOCK
Our charter authorizes our board of directors to classify any unissued shares of preferred stock and to reclassify any previously classified but unissued shares of any series. Prior to issuance of shares of each series, our board of directors is required by the MGCL and our charter to set the terms, preferences, conversion or other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends or other distributions, qualifications
 
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and terms or conditions of redemption for each such series. Thus, our board of directors could authorize the issuance of shares of preferred stock with terms and conditions that could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a transaction or a change of control of our Company that might involve a premium price for holders of our common stock or that stockholders believe may be in their best interests. As of February 22, 2022, 1,174,427 shares of our 8.45% Series D Cumulative Preferred Stock (“Series D Preferred Stock”), 1,251,044 shares of our 7.375% Series F Cumulative Preferred Stock (“Series F Preferred Stock”), 1,531,996 shares of our 7.375% Series G Cumulative Preferred Stock (“Series G Preferred Stock”), 1,308,415 shares of our 7.50% Series H Cumulative Preferred Stock (“Series H Preferred Stock”) and 1,252,923 shares of our 7.50% Series I Cumulative Preferred Stock (“Series I Preferred Stock”) are outstanding. Our preferred stock will, when issued, be fully paid and nonassessable and will not have, or be subject to, any preemptive or similar rights.
The prospectus supplement relating to the series of preferred stock offered by that supplement will describe the specific terms of those securities, including:

the title and stated value of that preferred stock;

the number of shares of that preferred stock offered, the liquidation preference per share and the offering price of that preferred stock;

the dividend rate(s), period(s) and payment date(s) or method(s) of calculation thereof applicable to that preferred stock;

whether dividends will be cumulative or non-cumulative and, if cumulative, the date from which dividends on that preferred stock will accumulate;

the voting rights applicable to that preferred stock;

the procedures for any auction and remarketing, if any, for that preferred stock;

the provisions for a sinking fund, if any, for that preferred stock;

the provisions for redemption including any restriction thereon, if applicable, of that preferred stock;

any listing of that preferred stock on any securities exchange;

the terms and conditions, if applicable, upon which that preferred stock will be convertible into shares of our common stock, including the conversion price (or manner of calculation of the conversion price) and conversion period;

a discussion of U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to that preferred stock;

any limitations on issuance of any series of preferred stock ranking senior to or on a parity with that series of preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs;

in addition to those limitations described above under “Description of our Capital Stock — Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer,” any other limitations on actual and constructive ownership and restrictions on transfer, in each case as may be appropriate to preserve our status as a REIT; and

any other specific terms, preferences, rights, limitations or restrictions of that preferred stock.
Rank
Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, the preferred stock will, with respect to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs rank:

senior to all classes or series of common stock and to all equity securities ranking junior to the preferred stock with respect to dividend rights or rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs;

on a parity with all equity securities issued by us the terms of which specifically provide that those equity securities rank on a parity with the preferred stock with respect to dividend rights or rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs; and
 
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junior to all equity securities issued by us the terms of which specifically provide that those equity securities rank senior to the preferred stock with respect to dividend rights or rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs.
The term “equity securities” does not include convertible debt securities.
Dividends
Subject to the preferential rights of any other class or series of stock and to the provisions of the charter regarding the restrictions on transfer of stock, holders of shares of our preferred stock will be entitled to receive dividends on such stock when, as and if authorized by our board of directors out of funds legally available therefor and declared by us, at rates and on dates as will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Dividends on any series or class of our preferred stock may be cumulative or noncumulative, as provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. Dividends, if cumulative, will be cumulative from and after the date set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. If our board of directors fails to authorize a dividend payable on a dividend payment date on any series or class of preferred stock for which dividends are noncumulative, then the holders of that series or class of preferred stock will have no right to receive a dividend in respect of the dividend period ending on that dividend payment date, and we will have no obligation to pay the dividend accrued for that period, whether or not dividends on such series or class are declared or paid for any future period.
If any shares of preferred stock of any series or class are outstanding, no dividends may be authorized or paid or set apart for payment on the preferred stock of any other series or class ranking, as to dividends, on a parity with or junior to the preferred stock of that series or class for any period unless:

the series or class of preferred stock has a cumulative dividend, and full cumulative dividends have been or contemporaneously are authorized and paid or authorized and a sum sufficient for the payment of those dividends is set apart for payment on the preferred stock of that series or class for all past dividend periods and the then current dividend period; or

the series or class of preferred stock does not have a cumulative dividend, and full dividends for the then current dividend period have been or contemporaneously are authorized and paid or authorized and a sum sufficient for the payment of those dividends is set apart for the payment on the preferred stock of that series or class.
When dividends are not paid in full (or a sum sufficient for the full payment is not set apart) upon the shares of preferred stock of any series or class and the shares of any other series or class of preferred stock ranking on a parity as to dividends with the preferred stock of that series or class, then all dividends authorized on shares of preferred stock of that series or class and any other series or class of preferred stock ranking on a parity as to dividends with that preferred stock shall be authorized pro rata so that the amount of dividends authorized per share on the preferred stock of that series or class and other series or class of preferred stock will in all cases bear to each other the same ratio that accrued dividends per share on the shares of preferred stock of that series or class (which will not include any accumulation in respect of unpaid dividends for prior dividend periods if the preferred stock does not have a cumulative dividend) and that other series or class of preferred stock bear to each other. No interest, or sum of money in lieu of interest, will be payable in respect of any dividend payment or payments on preferred stock of that series or class that may be in arrears.
Redemption
We may have the right or may be required to redeem one or more series of preferred stock, in whole or in part, in each case upon the terms, if any, and at the time and at the redemption prices set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.
If a series of preferred stock is subject to mandatory redemption, we will specify in the applicable articles supplementary and prospectus supplement the number of shares we are required to redeem, when those redemptions start, the redemption price, and any other terms and conditions affecting the redemption.
 
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The redemption price will include all accrued and unpaid dividends, except in the case of noncumulative preferred stock. The redemption price may be payable in cash or other property, as specified in the applicable prospectus supplement. If the redemption price for preferred stock of any series or class is payable only from the net proceeds of the issuance of our stock, the terms of that preferred stock may provide that, if no such stock shall have been issued or to the extent the net proceeds from any issuance are insufficient to pay in full the aggregate redemption price then due, that preferred stock shall automatically and mandatorily be converted into shares of our applicable stock pursuant to conversion provisions specified in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Liquidation Preference
Upon any voluntary or involuntary liquidation or dissolution of us or winding up of our affairs, then, before any distribution or payment will be made to the holders of common stock or any other series or class of stock ranking junior to any series or class of the preferred stock in the distribution of assets upon any liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs, the holders of that series or class of preferred stock will be entitled to receive out of our assets legally available for distribution to shareholders liquidating distributions in the amount of the liquidation preference per share (set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement), plus an amount equal to all dividends accrued and unpaid on the preferred stock (which will not include any accumulation in respect of unpaid dividends for prior dividend periods if the preferred stock does not have a cumulative dividend). After payment of the full amount of the liquidating distributions to which they are entitled, the holders of preferred stock will have no right or claim to any of our remaining assets.
If, upon any voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up, the legally available assets are insufficient to pay the amount of the liquidating distributions on all outstanding shares of any series or class of preferred stock and the corresponding amounts payable on all shares of other classes or series of our stock of ranking on a parity with that series or class of preferred stock in the distribution of assets upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up, then the holders of that series or class of preferred stock and all other classes or series of capital stock will share ratably in any distribution of assets in proportion to the full liquidating distributions to which they would otherwise be respectively entitled.
If liquidating distributions have been made in full to all holders of any series or class of preferred stock, our remaining assets will be distributed among the holders of any other classes or series of stock ranking junior to that series or class of preferred stock upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up, according to their respective rights and preferences and in each case according to their respective number of shares. For these purposes, the consolidation or merger of us with or into any other entity, or the sale, lease, transfer or conveyance of all or substantially all of our property or business, will not be deemed to constitute a liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs.
Voting Rights
Holders of preferred stock will not have any voting rights, except as set forth below or as indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Unless provided otherwise for any series or class of preferred stock, so long as any shares of preferred stock of a series or class remain outstanding, we will not, without the affirmative vote or consent of the holders of at least a majority of the shares of that series or class of preferred stock outstanding at the time, given in person or by proxy, either in writing or at a meeting (such series or class voting separately as a class):

authorize or create, or increase the authorized or issued amount of, any class or series of stock ranking prior to that series or class of preferred stock with respect to payment of dividends or the distribution of assets upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up or reclassify any authorized stock into any of those shares, or create, authorize or issue any obligation or security convertible into or evidencing the right to purchase any of those shares; or

amend, alter or repeal the provisions of our charter (including articles supplementary establishing any class or series of preferred stock), whether by merger, consolidation or otherwise, so as to materially
 
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and adversely affect any right, preference, privilege or voting power of that series or class of preferred stock or the holders of the preferred stock.
However, any increase in the amount of the authorized preferred stock or the creation or issuance of any other series or class of preferred stock, or any increase in the amount of authorized shares of such series or class or any other series or class of preferred stock, in each case ranking on a parity with or junior to the preferred stock of that series or class with respect to payment of dividends or the distribution of assets upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up, will not be deemed to materially and adversely affect such rights, preferences, privileges or voting powers.
These voting provisions will not apply if, at or prior to the time when the act with respect to which that vote would otherwise be required will be effected, all outstanding shares of that series or class of preferred stock have been redeemed or called for redemption upon proper notice and sufficient funds have been deposited in trust to effect that redemption.
Conversion Rights
The terms and conditions, if any, upon which shares of any series or class of preferred stock are convertible into shares of common stock will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms will include:

the number of shares of common stock into which the preferred stock is convertible;

the conversion price (or manner of calculation of the conversion price);

the conversion period;

provisions as to whether conversion will be at the option of the holders of the preferred stock or us;

the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion price; and

provisions affecting conversion in the event of the redemption of the preferred stock.
Series D Preferred Stock
As of February 22, 2022, we had 1,174,427 shares of our Series D Preferred Stock outstanding. The following is a summary of the material terms and provisions of our Series D Preferred Stock.
Authorized Capital Shares
The Board has classified and designated 9,666,797 shares of Series D Preferred Stock. All outstanding shares of our Series D Preferred Stock are fully paid and nonassessable.
Ranking
The Series D Preferred Stock will, with respect to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs rank:

senior to all classes or series of common stock and to all equity securities ranking junior to the Preferred Stock with respect to dividend rights or rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs;

on a parity with all equity securities issued by us the terms of which specifically provide that those equity securities rank on a parity with the Preferred Stock with respect to dividend rights or rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs; and

junior to all equity securities issued by us the terms of which specifically provide that those equity securities rank senior to the Preferred Stock with respect to dividend rights or rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs.
The term “equity securities” does not include convertible debt securities.
Our Series D Preferred Stock, Series F Preferred Stock, Series G Preferred Stock, Series H Preferred Stock, and Series I Preferred Stock all rank on a parity with one another.
 
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Voting Rights
Holders of Series D Preferred Stock generally have no voting rights, except that if six or more quarterly dividend payments have not been made, the Board will be expanded by two seats and the holders of Series D Preferred Stock, voting together as a single class with the holders of all other series of Preferred Stock that has been granted similar voting rights and is considered parity stock with the Series D Preferred Stock, will be entitled to elect these two directors. In addition, the issuance of senior shares or certain changes to the terms of the Series D Preferred Stock that would be materially adverse to the rights of holders of Series D Preferred Stock cannot be made without the affirmative vote or consent of holders of at least 66 2/3% of the outstanding Series D Preferred Stock and shares of any class or series of shares ranking on a parity with the Series D Preferred Stock which are entitled to similar voting rights, if any, voting as a single class.
Dividend Rights
The Series D Preferred Stock accrues a cumulative cash dividend at an annual rate of 8.45% on the $25.00 per share liquidation preference; provided, however, that during any period of time that both (i) the Series D Preferred Stock is not listed on either the NYSE, NYSE American LLC (the “NYSE American”), or the NASDAQ, or on a successor exchange and (ii) we are not subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, the Series D Preferred Stock will accrue a cumulative cash dividend at an annual rate of 9.45% on the $25.00 per share liquidation preference (equivalent to an annual dividend rate of $2.3625 per share), which we refer to as a special distribution.
Liquidation Rights
Upon any voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our Company, the holders of Series D Preferred Stock will be entitled to receive a liquidation preference of $25.00 per share, plus an amount equal to all accumulated, accrued and unpaid dividends (whether or not earned or declared) to the date of liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the affairs of our Company, before any payment or distribution will be made to or set apart for the holders of any junior stock.
Other Rights and Preferences
The Series D Preferred Stock is not convertible or exchangeable for any of our other securities or property, and holders of shares of our Series D Preferred Stock have no preemptive rights to subscribe for any securities of our Company. Holders of Series D Preferred Stock do not have redemption rights. Our Series D Preferred Stock is not subject to any sinking fund provisions.
During any period in which we are required to pay a special distribution, holders of the Series D Preferred Stock will become entitled to certain information rights related thereto.
Subject to the provisions of the charter regarding the restrictions on transfer of stock, we are not aware of any limitations on the rights to own our Series D Preferred Stock, including rights of non-resident or foreign stockholders to hold or exercise voting rights on our Series D Preferred Stock, imposed by foreign law or by our charter or bylaws.
Listing
The Series D Preferred Stock is traded on the NYSE under the trading symbol “AHTprD.”
Series F Preferred Stock
As of February 22, 2022, we had 1,251,044 shares of our Series F Preferred Stock outstanding. The following is a summary of the material terms and provisions of our Series F Preferred Stock.
Authorized Capital Shares
The Board has classified and designated 4,800,000 shares of Series F Preferred Stock. All outstanding shares of our Series F Preferred Stock are fully paid and nonassessable.
 
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Ranking
The Series F Preferred Stock will, with respect to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs rank:

senior to all classes or series of common stock and to all equity securities ranking junior to the Preferred Stock with respect to dividend rights or rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs;

on a parity with all equity securities issued by us the terms of which specifically provide that those equity securities rank on a parity with the Preferred Stock with respect to dividend rights or rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs; and

junior to all equity securities issued by us the terms of which specifically provide that those equity securities rank senior to the Preferred Stock with respect to dividend rights or rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs.
The term “equity securities” does not include convertible debt securities.
Voting Rights
Holders of Series F Preferred Stock generally have no voting rights, except that if six or more quarterly dividend payments have not been made, the Board will be expanded by two seats and the holders of Series F Preferred Stock, voting together as a single class with the holders of all other series of Preferred Stock that has been granted similar voting rights and is considered parity stock with the Series F Preferred Stock, will be entitled to elect these two directors. In addition, the issuance of senior shares or certain changes to the terms of the Series F Preferred Stock that would be materially adverse to the rights of holders of Series F Preferred Stock cannot be made without the affirmative vote or consent of holders of at least 66 2/3% of the outstanding Series F Preferred Stock and shares of any class or series of shares ranking on a parity with the Series F Preferred Stock which are entitled to similar voting rights, if any, voting as a single class.
Dividend Rights
The Series F Preferred Stock accrues a cumulative cash dividend at an annual rate of 7.375% on the $25.00 per share liquidation preference.
Liquidation Rights
Upon any voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our Company, the holders of Series F Preferred Stock will be entitled to receive a liquidation preference of $25.00 per share, plus an amount equal to all accumulated, accrued and unpaid dividends (whether or not earned or declared) to the date of liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the affairs of our Company, before any payment or distribution will be made to or set apart for the holders of any junior stock.
Redemption Provisions
Upon the occurrence of a Change of Control (as defined below), we may, at our option, redeem the Series F Preferred Stock, in whole or in part within 120 days after the first date on which such Change of Control occurred, by paying $25.00 per share, plus any accrued and unpaid dividends to, but not including, the date of redemption. If, prior to the Change of Control conversion date, we exercise any of our redemption rights relating to the Series F Preferred Stock (whether our optional redemption right or our special optional redemption right), the holders of Series F Preferred Stock will not have the conversion right described below.
A “Change of Control” is when, after the original issuance of the Series F Preferred Stock, the following have occurred and are continuing:

the acquisition by any person, including any syndicate or group deemed to be a “person” under Section 13(d)(3) of the Exchange Act, of beneficial ownership, directly or indirectly, through a purchase, merger or other acquisition transaction or series of purchases, mergers or other acquisition
 
15

 
transactions of shares of our Company entitling that person to exercise more than 50% of the total voting power of all shares of our Company entitled to vote generally in elections of directors (except that such person will be deemed to have beneficial ownership of all securities that such person has the right to acquire, whether such right is currently exercisable or is exercisable only upon the occurrence of a subsequent condition); and

following the closing of any transaction referred to in the bullet point above, neither we nor the acquiring or surviving entity has a class of common securities (or American Depository Receipts representing such securities) listed on the NYSE, the NYSE American or NASDAQ or listed or quoted on an exchange or quotation system that is a successor to the NYSE, the NYSE American or NASDAQ.
In addition, we may redeem the Series F Preferred Stock, in whole or from time to time in part, at a cash redemption price equal to 100% of the $25.00 per share liquidation preference plus all accrued and unpaid dividends to the date fixed for redemption. The Series F Preferred Stock has no stated maturity and is not subject to any sinking fund or mandatory redemption provisions.
Conversion Rights
Upon the occurrence of a Change of Control, each holder of Series F Preferred Stock will have the right (unless, prior to the Change of Control conversion date, we have provided or provide notice of our election to redeem the Series F Preferred Stock) to convert some or all of the Series F Preferred Stock held by such holder on the Change of Control conversion date into a number of shares of our common stock per share of Series F Preferred Stock to be converted equal to the lesser of:

the quotient obtained by dividing (i) the sum of the $25.00 liquidation preference plus the amount of any accrued and unpaid dividends to, but not including, the Change of Control conversion date (unless the Change of Control conversion date is after a dividend record date for the Series F Preferred Stock and prior to the corresponding Series F Preferred Stock dividend payment date, in which case no additional amount for such accrued and unpaid dividend will be included in this sum) by (ii) the Common Stock Price (as defined below); and

.0968992, subject to certain adjustments;
subject, in each case, to provisions for the receipt of alternative consideration. The “Common Stock Price” will be (i) the amount of cash consideration per share of common stock, if the consideration to be received in the Change of Control by the holders of our common stock is solely cash; or (ii) the average of the closing prices for our common stock on the NYSE for the ten consecutive trading days immediately preceding, but not including, the effective date of the Change of Control, if the consideration to be received in the Change of Control by the holders of our common stock is other than solely cash.
If, prior to the Change of Control conversion date, we have provided or provide a redemption notice, whether pursuant to our special optional redemption right in connection with a Change of Control or our optional redemption right, holders of Series F Preferred Stock will not have any right to convert the Series F Preferred Stock in connection with the Change of Control conversion right and any shares of Series F Preferred Stock selected for redemption that have been tendered for conversion will be redeemed on the related date of redemption instead of converted on the Change of Control conversion date.
Except as provided above in connection with a Change of Control, the Series F Preferred Stock is not convertible into or exchangeable for any other securities or property.
Other Rights and Preferences
Holders of shares of our Series F Preferred Stock have no preemptive rights to subscribe for any securities of our Company. Subject to the provisions of the charter regarding the restrictions on transfer of stock, we are not aware of any limitations on the rights to own our Series F Preferred Stock, including rights of non-resident or foreign stockholders to hold or exercise voting rights on our Series F Preferred Stock, imposed by foreign law or by our charter or bylaws.
 
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Listing
The Series F Preferred Stock is traded on the NYSE under the trading symbol “AHTprF.”
Series G Preferred Stock
As of February 22, 2022, we had 1,531,996 shares of our Series G Preferred Stock outstanding. The following is a summary of the material terms and provisions of our Series G Preferred Stock.
Authorized Capital Shares
The Board has classified and designated 6,900,000 shares of Series G Preferred Stock. All outstanding shares of our Series G Preferred Stock are fully paid and nonassessable.
Ranking
The Series G Preferred Stock will, with respect to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs rank:

senior to all classes or series of common stock and to all equity securities ranking junior to the Preferred Stock with respect to dividend rights or rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs;

on a parity with all equity securities issued by us the terms of which specifically provide that those equity securities rank on a parity with the Preferred Stock with respect to dividend rights or rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs; and

junior to all equity securities issued by us the terms of which specifically provide that those equity securities rank senior to the Preferred Stock with respect to dividend rights or rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs.
The term “equity securities” does not include convertible debt securities.
Voting Rights
Holders of Series G Preferred Stock generally have no voting rights, except that if six or more quarterly dividend payments have not been made, the Board will be expanded by two seats and the holders of Series G Preferred Stock, voting together as a single class with the holders of all other series of Preferred Stock that has been granted similar voting rights and is considered parity stock with the Series G Preferred Stock, will be entitled to elect these two directors. In addition, the issuance of senior shares or certain changes to the terms of the Series G Preferred Stock that would be materially adverse to the rights of holders of Series G Preferred Stock cannot be made without the affirmative vote or consent of holders of at least 66 2/3% of the outstanding Series G Preferred Stock and shares of any class or series of shares ranking on a parity with the Series G Preferred Stock which are entitled to similar voting rights, if any, voting as a single class.
Dividend Rights
The Series G Preferred Stock accrues a cumulative cash dividend at an annual rate of 7.375% on the $25.00 per share liquidation preference.
Liquidation Rights
Upon any voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our Company, the holders of Series G Preferred Stock will be entitled to receive a liquidation preference of $25.00 per share, plus an amount equal to all accumulated, accrued and unpaid dividends (whether or not earned or declared) to the date of liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the affairs of our Company, before any payment or distribution will be made to or set apart for the holders of any junior stock.
Redemption Provisions
Upon the occurrence of a Change of Control (as defined below), we may, at our option, redeem the Series G Preferred Stock, in whole or in part within 120 days after the first date on which such Change of
 
17

 
Control occurred, by paying $25.00 per share, plus any accrued and unpaid dividends to, but not including, the date of redemption. If, prior to the Change of Control conversion date, we exercise any of our redemption rights relating to the Series G Preferred Stock (whether our optional redemption right or our special optional redemption right), the holders of Series G Preferred Stock will not have the conversion right described below.
A “Change of Control” is when, after the original issuance of the Series G Preferred Stock, the following have occurred and are continuing:

the acquisition by any person, including any syndicate or group deemed to be a “person” under Section 13(d)(3) of the Exchange Act, of beneficial ownership, directly or indirectly, through a purchase, merger or other acquisition transaction or series of purchases, mergers or other acquisition transactions of shares of our Company entitling that person to exercise more than 50% of the total voting power of all shares of our Company entitled to vote generally in elections of directors (except that such person will be deemed to have beneficial ownership of all securities that such person has the right to acquire, whether such right is currently exercisable or is exercisable only upon the occurrence of a subsequent condition); and

following the closing of any transaction referred to in the bullet point above, neither we nor the acquiring or surviving entity has a class of common securities (or ADRs representing such securities) listed on the NYSE, the NYSE American or NASDAQ or listed or quoted on an exchange or quotation system that is a successor to the NYSE, the NYSE American or NASDAQ.
In addition, we may redeem the Series G Preferred Stock, in whole or from time to time in part, at a cash redemption price equal to 100% of the $25.00 per share liquidation preference plus all accrued and unpaid dividends to the date fixed for redemption. The Series G Preferred Stock has no stated maturity and is not subject to any sinking fund or mandatory redemption provisions.
Conversion Rights
Upon the occurrence of a Change of Control, each holder of Series G Preferred Stock will have the right (unless, prior to the Change of Control conversion date, we have provided or provide notice of our election to redeem the Series G Preferred Stock) to convert some or all of the Series G Preferred Stock held by such holder on the Change of Control conversion date into a number of shares of our common stock per share of Series G Preferred Stock to be converted equal to the lesser of:

the quotient obtained by dividing (i) the sum of the $25.00 liquidation preference plus the amount of any accrued and unpaid dividends to, but not including, the Change of Control conversion date (unless the Change of Control conversion date is after a dividend record date for the Series G Preferred Stock and prior to the corresponding Series G Preferred Stock dividend payment date, in which case no additional amount for such accrued and unpaid dividend will be included in this sum) by (ii) the Common Stock Price (as defined below); and

.083333, subject to certain adjustments;
subject, in each case, to provisions for the receipt of alternative consideration. The “Common Stock Price” will be (i) the amount of cash consideration per share of common stock, if the consideration to be received in the Change of Control by the holders of our common stock is solely cash; or (ii) the average of the closing prices for our common stock on the NYSE for the ten consecutive trading days immediately preceding, but not including, the effective date of the Change of Control, if the consideration to be received in the Change of Control by the holders of our common stock is other than solely cash.
If, prior to the Change of Control conversion date, we have provided or provide a redemption notice, whether pursuant to our special optional redemption right in connection with a Change of Control or our optional redemption right, holders of Series G Preferred Stock will not have any right to convert the Series G Preferred Stock in connection with the Change of Control conversion right and any shares of Series G Preferred Stock selected for redemption that have been tendered for conversion will be redeemed on the related date of redemption instead of converted on the Change of Control conversion date.
 
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Except as provided above in connection with a Change of Control, the Series G Preferred Stock is not convertible into or exchangeable for any other securities or property.
Other Rights and Preferences
Holders of shares of our Series G Preferred Stock have no preemptive rights to subscribe for any securities of our Company. Subject to the provisions of the charter regarding the restrictions on transfer of stock, we are not aware of any limitations on the rights to own our Series G Preferred Stock, including rights of non-resident or foreign stockholders to hold or exercise voting rights on our Series G Preferred Stock, imposed by foreign law or by our charter or bylaws.
Listing
The Series G Preferred Stock is traded on the NYSE under the trading symbol “AHTprG.”
Series H Preferred Stock
As of February 22, 2022 we had 1,308,415 shares of our Series H Preferred Stock outstanding. The following is a summary of the material terms and provisions of our Series H Preferred Stock.
Authorized Capital Shares
The Board has classified and designated 3,910,000 shares of Series H Preferred Stock. All outstanding shares of our Series H Preferred Stock are fully paid and nonassessable.
Ranking
The Series H Preferred Stock will, with respect to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs rank:

senior to all classes or series of common stock and to all equity securities ranking junior to the Preferred Stock with respect to dividend rights or rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs;

on a parity with all equity securities issued by us the terms of which specifically provide that those equity securities rank on a parity with the Preferred Stock with respect to dividend rights or rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs; and

junior to all equity securities issued by us the terms of which specifically provide that those equity securities rank senior to the Preferred Stock with respect to dividend rights or rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs.
The term “equity securities” does not include convertible debt securities.
Voting Rights
Holders of Series H Preferred Stock generally have no voting rights, except that if six or more quarterly dividend payments have not been made, the Board will be expanded by two seats and the holders of Series H Preferred Stock, voting together as a single class with the holders of all other series of Preferred Stock that has been granted similar voting rights and is considered parity stock with the Series H Preferred Stock, will be entitled to elect these two directors. In addition, the issuance of senior shares or certain changes to the terms of the Series H Preferred Stock that would be materially adverse to the rights of holders of Series H Preferred Stock cannot be made without the affirmative vote or consent of holders of at least 66 2/3% of the outstanding Series H Preferred Stock and shares of any class or series of shares ranking on a parity with the Series H Preferred Stock which are entitled to similar voting rights, if any, voting as a single class.
Dividend Rights
The Series H Preferred Stock accrues a cumulative cash dividend at an annual rate of 7.50% on the $25.00 per share liquidation preference.
 
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Liquidation Rights
Upon any voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our Company, the holders of Series H Preferred Stock will be entitled to receive a liquidation preference of $25.00 per share, plus an amount equal to all accumulated, accrued and unpaid dividends (whether or not earned or declared) to the date of liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the affairs of our Company, before any payment or distribution will be made to or set apart for the holders of any junior stock.
Redemption Provisions
Upon the occurrence of a Change of Control (as defined below), we may, at our option, redeem the Series H Preferred Stock, in whole or in part within 120 days after the first date on which such Change of Control occurred, by paying $25.00 per share, plus any accrued and unpaid dividends to, but not including, the date of redemption. If, prior to the Change of Control conversion date, we exercise any of our redemption rights relating to the Series H Preferred Stock (whether our optional redemption right or our special optional redemption right), the holders of Series H Preferred Stock will not have the conversion right described below.
A “Change of Control” is when, after the original issuance of the Series H Preferred Stock, the following have occurred and are continuing:

the acquisition by any person, including any syndicate or group deemed to be a “person” under Section 13(d)(3) of the Exchange Act, of beneficial ownership, directly or indirectly, through a purchase, merger or other acquisition transaction or series of purchases, mergers or other acquisition transactions of shares of our Company entitling that person to exercise more than 50% of the total voting power of all shares of our Company entitled to vote generally in elections of directors (except that such person will be deemed to have beneficial ownership of all securities that such person has the right to acquire, whether such right is currently exercisable or is exercisable only upon the occurrence of a subsequent condition); and

following the closing of any transaction referred to in the bullet point above, neither we nor the acquiring or surviving entity has a class of common securities (or ADRs representing such securities) listed on the NYSE, the NYSE American or NASDAQ or listed or quoted on an exchange or quotation system that is a successor to the NYSE, the NYSE American or NASDAQ.
In addition, we may redeem the Series H Preferred Stock, in whole or from time to time in part, at a cash redemption price equal to 100% of the $25.00 per share liquidation preference plus all accrued and unpaid dividends to the date fixed for redemption. The Series H Preferred Stock has no stated maturity and is not subject to any sinking fund or mandatory redemption provisions.
Conversion Rights
Upon the occurrence of a Change of Control, each holder of Series H Preferred Stock will have the right (unless, prior to the Change of Control conversion date, we have provided or provide notice of our election to redeem the Series H Preferred Stock) to convert some or all of the Series H Preferred Stock held by such holder on the Change of Control conversion date into a number of shares of our common stock per share of Series H Preferred Stock to be converted equal to the lesser of:

the quotient obtained by dividing (i) the sum of the $25.00 liquidation preference plus the amount of any accrued and unpaid dividends to, but not including, the Change of Control conversion date (unless the Change of Control conversion date is after a dividend record date for the Series H Preferred Stock and prior to the corresponding Series H Preferred Stock dividend payment date, in which case no additional amount for such accrued and unpaid dividend will be included in this sum) by (ii) the Common Stock Price (as defined below); and

.0825083, subject to certain adjustments;
subject, in each case, to provisions for the receipt of alternative consideration. The “Common Stock Price” will be (i) the amount of cash consideration per share of common stock, if the consideration to be received in the Change of Control by the holders of our common stock is solely cash; or (ii) the average of the
 
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closing prices for our common stock on the NYSE for the ten consecutive trading days immediately preceding, but not including, the effective date of the Change of Control, if the consideration to be received in the Change of Control by the holders of our common stock is other than solely cash.
If, prior to the Change of Control conversion date, we have provided or provide a redemption notice, whether pursuant to our special optional redemption right in connection with a Change of Control or our optional redemption right, holders of Series H Preferred Stock will not have any right to convert the Series H Preferred Stock in connection with the Change of Control conversion right and any shares of Series H Preferred Stock selected for redemption that have been tendered for conversion will be redeemed on the related date of redemption instead of converted on the Change of Control conversion date.
Except as provided above in connection with a Change of Control, the Series H Preferred Stock is not convertible into or exchangeable for any other securities or property.
Other Rights and Preferences
Holders of shares of our Series H Preferred Stock have no preemptive rights to subscribe for any securities of our Company. Subject to the provisions of the charter regarding the restrictions on transfer of stock, we are not aware of any limitations on the rights to own our Series H Preferred Stock, including rights of non-resident or foreign stockholders to hold or exercise voting rights on our Series H Preferred Stock, imposed by foreign law or by our charter or bylaws.
Listing
The Series H Preferred Stock is traded on the NYSE under the trading symbol “AHTprH.”
Series I Preferred Stock
As of February 22, 2022 we had 1,252,923 shares of our Series I Preferred Stock outstanding. The following is a summary of the material terms and provisions of our Series I Preferred Stock.
Authorized Capital Shares
The Board has classified and designated 6,210,000 shares of Series I Preferred Stock. All outstanding shares of our Series I Preferred Stock are fully paid and nonassessable.
Ranking
The Series I Preferred Stock will, with respect to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs rank:

senior to all classes or series of common stock and to all equity securities ranking junior to the Preferred Stock with respect to dividend rights or rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs;

on a parity with all equity securities issued by us the terms of which specifically provide that those equity securities rank on a parity with the Preferred Stock with respect to dividend rights or rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs; and

junior to all equity securities issued by us the terms of which specifically provide that those equity securities rank senior to the Preferred Stock with respect to dividend rights or rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs.
The term “equity securities” does not include convertible debt securities.
Voting Rights
Holders of Series I Preferred Stock generally have no voting rights, except that if six or more quarterly dividend payments have not been made, the Board will be expanded by two seats and the holders of Series I Preferred Stock, voting together as a single class with the holders of all other series of Preferred Stock
 
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that has been granted similar voting rights and is considered parity stock with the Series I Preferred Stock, will be entitled to elect these two directors. In addition, the issuance of senior shares or certain changes to the terms of the Series I Preferred Stock that would be materially adverse to the rights of holders of Series I Preferred Stock cannot be made without the affirmative vote or consent of holders of at least 66 2/3% of the outstanding Series I Preferred Stock and shares of any class or series of shares ranking on a parity with the Series I Preferred Stock which are entitled to similar voting rights, if any, voting as a single class.
Dividend Rights
The Series I Preferred Stock accrues a cumulative cash dividend at an annual rate of 7.50% on the $25.00 per share liquidation preference.
Liquidation Rights
Upon any voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our Company, the holders of Series I Preferred Stock will be entitled to receive a liquidation preference of $25.00 per share, plus an amount equal to all accumulated, accrued and unpaid dividends (whether or not earned or declared) to the date of liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the affairs of our Company, before any payment or distribution will be made to or set apart for the holders of any junior stock.
Redemption Provisions
Upon the occurrence of a Change of Control (as defined below), we may, at our option, redeem the Series I Preferred Stock, in whole or in part within 120 days after the first date on which such Change of Control occurred, by paying $25.00 per share, plus any accrued and unpaid dividends to, but not including, the date of redemption. If, prior to the Change of Control conversion date, we exercise any of our redemption rights relating to the Series I Preferred Stock (whether our optional redemption right or our special optional redemption right), the holders of Series I Preferred Stock will not have the conversion right described below.
A “Change of Control” is when, after the original issuance of the Series I Preferred Stock, the following have occurred and are continuing:

the acquisition by any person, including any syndicate or group deemed to be a “person” under Section 13(d)(3) of the Exchange Act, of beneficial ownership, directly or indirectly, through a purchase, merger or other acquisition transaction or series of purchases, mergers or other acquisition transactions of shares of our Company entitling that person to exercise more than 50% of the total voting power of all shares of our Company entitled to vote generally in elections of directors (except that such person will be deemed to have beneficial ownership of all securities that such person has the right to acquire, whether such right is currently exercisable or is exercisable only upon the occurrence of a subsequent condition); and

following the closing of any transaction referred to in the bullet point above, neither we nor the acquiring or surviving entity has a class of common securities (or ADRs representing such securities) listed on the NYSE, the NYSE American or NASDAQ or listed or quoted on an exchange or quotation system that is a successor to the NYSE, the NYSE American or NASDAQ.
In addition, on and after November 17, 2022, we may redeem the Series I Preferred Stock, in whole or from time to time in part, at a cash redemption price equal to 100% of the $25.00 per share liquidation preference plus all accrued and unpaid dividends to the date fixed for redemption. The Series I Preferred Stock has no stated maturity and is not subject to any sinking fund or mandatory redemption provisions.
Conversion Rights
Upon the occurrence of a Change of Control, each holder of Series I Preferred Stock will have the right (unless, prior to the Change of Control conversion date, we have provided or provide notice of our election to redeem the Series I Preferred Stock) to convert some or all of the Series I Preferred Stock held by such holder on the Change of Control conversion date into a number of shares of our common stock per share of Series I Preferred Stock to be converted equal to the lesser of:
 
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the quotient obtained by dividing (i) the sum of the $25.00 liquidation preference plus the amount of any accrued and unpaid dividends to, but not including, the Change of Control conversion date (unless the Change of Control conversion date is after a dividend record date for the Series I Preferred Stock and prior to the corresponding Series I Preferred Stock dividend payment date, in which case no additional amount for such accrued and unpaid dividend will be included in this sum) by (ii) the Common Stock Price (as defined below); and

.0806452, subject to certain adjustments;
subject, in each case, to provisions for the receipt of alternative consideration. The “Common Stock Price” will be (i) the amount of cash consideration per share of common stock, if the consideration to be received in the Change of Control by the holders of our common stock is solely cash; or (ii) the average of the closing prices for our common stock on the NYSE for the ten consecutive trading days immediately preceding, but not including, the effective date of the Change of Control, if the consideration to be received in the Change of Control by the holders of our common stock is other than solely cash.
If, prior to the Change of Control conversion date, we have provided or provide a redemption notice, whether pursuant to our special optional redemption right in connection with a Change of Control or our optional redemption right, holders of Series I Preferred Stock will not have any right to convert the Series I Preferred Stock in connection with the Change of Control conversion right and any shares of Series I Preferred Stock selected for redemption that have been tendered for conversion will be redeemed on the related date of redemption instead of converted on the Change of Control conversion date.
Except as provided above in connection with a Change of Control, the Series I Preferred Stock is not convertible into or exchangeable for any other securities or property.
Other Rights and Preferences
Holders of shares of our Series I Preferred Stock have no preemptive rights to subscribe for any securities of our Company.
During any period that we are not subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, and any Series I Preferred Stock is outstanding, holders of the Series I Preferred Stock will become entitled to certain information rights related thereto.
Subject to the provisions of the charter regarding the restrictions on transfer of stock, we are not aware of any limitations on the rights to own our Series I Preferred Stock, including rights of non-resident or foreign stockholders to hold or exercise voting rights on our Series I Preferred Stock, imposed by foreign law or by our charter or bylaws.
Listing
The Series I Preferred Stock is traded on the NYSE under the trading symbol “AHTprI.”
DESCRIPTION OF OUR DEPOSITARY SHARES
We may, at our option, elect to offer fractional shares of preferred stock, or “depositary shares,” rather than full shares of preferred stock. In that event, we will issue receipts for depositary shares, and each receipt will represent a fraction of a share of a particular series of preferred stock as described in the applicable prospectus supplement.
The shares of any series of preferred stock represented by depositary shares will be deposited under a deposit agreement to be entered into between us and the depositary named in the applicable prospectus supplement. The deposit agreement will contain terms applicable to the holders of depositary shares in addition to the terms stated in the depositary receipts. Subject to the terms of the deposit agreement, each owner of a depositary share will be entitled, in proportion to the applicable fraction of the preferred share represented by such depositary share, to all the rights and preferences of the preferred share, including dividend, voting, redemption, subscription and liquidation rights. The terms of any depositary shares will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement and the provisions of the deposit agreement, which will
 
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be filed with the SEC. You should carefully read the deposit agreement and the depositary receipt attached to the deposit agreement for a more complete description of the terms of the depositary shares.
If any series of preferred stock underlying the depositary shares may be converted or redeemed, each record holder of depositary receipts representing the shares of preferred stock being converted or redeemed will have the right or obligation to convert or redeem the depositary shares represented by the depositary receipts.
Whenever we redeem or convert shares of preferred stock held by the depositary, the depositary will redeem or convert, at the same time, the number of depositary shares representing the preferred stock to be redeemed or converted. The depositary will redeem or convert the depositary shares from the proceeds it receives from the corresponding redemption or conversion of the applicable series of preferred stock. The redemption or conversion price per depositary share will be equal to the applicable fraction of the redemption or conversion price per share of the applicable series of preferred stock. If fewer than all the depositary shares are to be redeemed or converted, the depositary will select which shares are to be redeemed or converted by lot on a pro rata basis or by any other equitable method as the depositary may decide.
After the redemption or conversion date, the depositary shares called for redemption or conversion will no longer be outstanding. When the depositary shares are no longer outstanding, all rights of the holders of such shares will end, except the right to receive money, securities or other property payable upon redemption or conversion.
We will pay all fees, charges and expenses of the depositary, including such fees, charges and expenses in connection with the initial deposit of preferred stock and any redemption of the preferred stock. Holders of depositary shares will pay taxes and any other charges as are stated in the deposit agreement for their accounts.
DESCRIPTION OF OUR DEBT SECURITIES
The following description, together with the additional information we include in any applicable prospectus supplements, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any future debt securities we may offer, we will describe the particular terms of any debt securities that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. If we indicate in a prospectus supplement, the terms of any debt securities we offer under that prospectus supplement may differ from the terms we describe below.
The debt securities will be our direct unsecured general obligations and may include debentures, notes, bonds or other evidences of indebtedness. The debt securities will be either senior debt securities or subordinated debt securities. The debt securities will be issued under one or more separate indentures. Senior debt securities will be issued under a senior indenture, and subordinated debt securities will be issued under a subordinated indenture. We use the term “indentures” to refer to both the senior indenture and the subordinated indenture. The indentures will be qualified under the Trust Indenture Act. We use the term “trustee” to refer to either the senior trustee or the subordinated trustee, as applicable.
The following summaries of material provisions of the debt securities and indentures are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the indenture applicable to a particular series of debt securities.
General
We will describe in each prospectus supplement the following terms relating to a series of debt securities:

the title;

any limit on the amount that may be issued;

whether or not we will issue the series of debt securities in global form, the terms and who the depository will be;

the maturity date;
 
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the annual interest rate, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate and the date interest will begin to accrue, the dates interest will be payable and the regular record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such dates;

whether or not the debt securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;

the terms of the subordination of any series of subordinated debt;

the place where payments will be payable;

our right, if any, to defer payment of interest and the maximum length of any such deferral period;

the date, if any, after which, and the price at which, we may, at our option, redeem the series of debt securities pursuant to any optional redemption provisions;

the date, if any, on which, and the price at which we are obligated, pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund provisions or otherwise, to redeem, or at the holder’s option to purchase, the series of debt securities;

whether the indenture will restrict our ability to pay dividends, or will require us to maintain any asset ratios or reserves;

whether we will be restricted from incurring any additional indebtedness;

a discussion on any material or special U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to the debt securities;

the denominations in which we will issue the series of debt securities, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof; and

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the debt securities.
Conversion or Exchange Rights
We will set forth in the prospectus supplement the terms on which a series of debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for shares of common stock or other securities of ours. We will include provisions as to whether conversion or exchange is mandatory, at the option of the holder or at our option. We may include provisions pursuant to which the number of shares of common stock or other securities of ours that the holders of the series of debt securities receive would be subject to adjustment.
Consolidation, Merger or Sale
The indentures do not contain any covenant which restricts our ability to merge or consolidate, or sell, convey, transfer or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our assets. However, any successor to or acquirer of such assets must assume all of our obligations under the indentures or the debt securities, as appropriate.
Events of Default Under the Indenture
Subject to the terms of the indentures, the following are events of default under the indentures with respect to any series of debt securities that we may issue:

if we fail to pay interest when due and our failure continues for a number of days to be stated in the indenture and the time for payment has not been extended or deferred;

if we fail to pay the principal, or premium, if any, when due and the time for payment has not been extended or delayed;

if we fail to observe or perform any other covenant contained in the debt securities or the indentures, other than a covenant specifically relating to another series of debt securities, and our failure continues for a number of days to be stated in the indenture after we receive notice from the trustee or holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the applicable series; and

if specified events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occur as to us.
 
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If an event of default with respect to debt securities of any series occurs and is continuing, the trustee or the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series, by notice to us in writing, and to the trustee if notice is given by such holders, may declare the unpaid principal of, premium, if any, and accrued interest, if any, due and payable immediately.
The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of an affected series may waive any default or event of default with respect to the series and its consequences, except defaults or events of default regarding payment of principal, premium, if any, or interest, unless we have cured the default or event of default in accordance with the indenture. Any waiver shall cure the default or event of default.
Subject to the terms of the indentures, if an event of default under an indenture shall occur and be continuing, the trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under such indenture at the request or direction of any of the holders of the applicable series of debt securities, unless such holders have offered the trustee reasonable indemnity. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee, with respect to the debt securities of that series, provided that:

the direction so given by the holder is not in conflict with any law or the applicable indenture; and

subject to its duties under the Trust Indenture Act, the trustee need not take any action that might involve it in personal liability or might be unduly prejudicial to the holders not involved in the proceeding.
Subject to the terms of the indentures, a holder of the debt securities of any series will only have the right to institute a proceeding under the indentures or to appoint a receiver or trustee, or to seek other remedies if:

the holder has given written notice to the trustee of a continuing event of default with respect to that series;

the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made written request, and such holders have offered reasonable indemnity to the trustee to institute the proceeding as trustee; and

the trustee does not institute the proceeding, and does not receive from the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series other conflicting directions within 60 days after the notice, request and offer.
These limitations do not apply to a suit instituted by a holder of debt securities if we default in the payment of the principal, premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities.
We will periodically file statements with the trustee regarding our compliance with specified covenants in the indentures.
Modification of Indenture; Waiver
We and the trustee may change an indenture without the consent of any holders with respect to specific matters, including:

to fix any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the indenture; and

to change anything that does not materially adversely affect the interests of any holder of debt securities of any series.
In addition, under the indentures, the rights of holders of a series of debt securities may be changed by us and the trustee with the written consent of the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series that is affected. However, we and the trustee may only make the following changes with the consent of each holder of any outstanding debt securities affected:

extending the fixed maturity of the series of debt securities;
 
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reducing the principal amount, reducing the rate of or extending the time of payment of interest, or any premium payable upon the redemption of any debt securities; or

reducing the percentage of debt securities, the holders of which are required to consent to any amendment.
Discharge
Each indenture provides that we can elect to be discharged from our obligations with respect to one or more series of debt securities, except for obligations to:

register the transfer or exchange of debt securities of the series;

replace stolen, lost or mutilated debt securities of the series;

maintain paying agencies;

hold monies for payment in trust;

compensate and indemnify the trustee; and

appoint any successor trustee.
In order to exercise our rights to be discharged, we must deposit with the trustee money or government obligations sufficient to pay all the principal of, any premium, if any, and interest on, the debt securities of the series on the dates payments are due.
Form, Exchange and Transfer
We will issue the debt securities of each series only in fully registered form without coupons and, unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, in denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof. The indentures provide that we may issue debt securities of a series in temporary or permanent global form and as book-entry securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company or another depository named by us and identified in a prospectus supplement with respect to that series.
At the option of the holder, subject to the terms of the indentures and the limitations applicable to global securities described in the applicable prospectus supplement, the holder of the debt securities of any series can exchange the debt securities for other debt securities of the same series, in any authorized denomination and of like tenor and aggregate principal amount.
Subject to the terms of the indentures and the limitations applicable to global securities set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the debt securities may present the debt securities for exchange or for registration of transfer, duly endorsed or with the form of transfer endorsed thereon duly executed if so required by us or the security registrar, at the office of the security registrar or at the office of any transfer agent designated by us for this purpose. Unless otherwise provided in the debt securities that the holder presents for transfer or exchange, we will make no service charge for any registration of transfer or exchange, but we may require payment of any taxes or other governmental charges.
We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement the security registrar, and any transfer agent in addition to the security registrar, that we initially designate for any debt securities. We may at any time designate additional transfer agents or rescind the designation of any transfer agent or approve a change in the office through which any transfer agent acts, except that we will be required to maintain a transfer agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of each series.
If we elect to redeem the debt securities of any series, we will not be required to:

issue, register the transfer of, or exchange any debt securities of that series during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of mailing of a notice of redemption of any debt securities that may be selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of the mailing; or
 
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register the transfer of or exchange any debt securities so selected for redemption, in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of any debt securities we are redeeming in part.
Information Concerning the Trustee
The trustee, other than during the occurrence and continuance of an event of default under an indenture, undertakes to perform only those duties as are specifically set forth in the applicable indenture. Upon an event of default under an indenture, the trustee must use the same degree of care as a prudent person would exercise or use in the conduct of his or her own affairs. Subject to this provision, the trustee is under no obligation to exercise any of the powers given it by the indentures at the request of any holder of debt securities unless it is offered reasonable security and indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that it might incur.
Payment and Paying Agents
Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make payment of the interest on any debt securities on any interest payment date to the person in whose name the debt securities, or one or more predecessor securities, are registered at the close of business on the regular record date for the interest.
We will pay principal of and any premium and interest on the debt securities of a particular series at the office of the paying agents designated by us, except that unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make interest payments by check which we will mail to the holder. Unless we otherwise indicate in a prospectus supplement, we will designate the corporate trust office of the trustee in the City of New York as our sole paying agent for payments with respect to debt securities of each series. We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement any other paying agents that we initially designate for the debt securities of a particular series. We will maintain a paying agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of a particular series.
All money we pay to a paying agent or the trustee for the payment of the principal of or any premium or interest on any debt securities which remains unclaimed at the end of two years after such principal, premium or interest has become due and payable will be repaid to us, and the holder of the security thereafter may look only to us for payment thereof.
Governing Law
The indentures and the debt securities will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York, except to the extent that the Trust Indenture Act is applicable.
Subordination of Subordinated Notes
The subordinated notes will be unsecured and will be subordinate and junior in priority of payment to certain of our other indebtedness to the extent described in a prospectus supplement. The subordinated indenture does not limit the amount of subordinated notes which we may issue. It also does not limit us from issuing any other secured or unsecured debt.
DESCRIPTION OF OUR WARRANTS
This section describes the general terms and provisions of our warrants. The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the specific terms of the warrants offered through that prospectus supplement as well as any general terms described in this section that will not apply to those warrants.
We may issue warrants for the purchase of our debt securities, preferred stock, or common stock. We may issue warrants independently or together with other securities, and they may be attached to or separate from the other securities. Each series of warrants will be issued under a separate warrant agreement that we will enter into with a bank or trust company, as warrant agent, as detailed in the applicable prospectus supplement. The warrant agent will act solely as our agent in connection with the warrants and will not assume any obligation, or agency or trust relationship, with you.
 
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The prospectus supplement relating to a particular issue of warrants will describe the terms of those warrants, including, where applicable:

the aggregate number of the securities covered by the warrant;

the designation, amount and terms of the securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrant;

the exercise price for our debt securities, the amount of debt securities upon exercise you will receive, and a description of that series of debt securities;

the exercise price for shares of our preferred stock, the number of shares of preferred stock to be received upon exercise, and a description of that series of our preferred stock;

the exercise price for shares of our common stock and the number of shares of common stock to be received upon exercise;

the expiration date for exercising the warrant;

the minimum or maximum amount of warrants that may be exercised at any time;

a discussion of U.S. federal income tax consequences; and

any other material terms of the warrants.
After the warrants expire they will become void. The prospectus supplement will describe how to exercise warrants. A holder must exercise warrants for our preferred stock or common stock through payment in U.S. dollars. All warrants will be issued in registered form. The prospectus supplement may provide for the adjustment of the exercise price of the warrants.
Until a holder exercises warrants to purchase our debt securities, preferred stock, or common stock, that holder will not have any rights as a holder of our debt securities, preferred stock, or common stock by virtue of ownership of warrants.
DESCRIPTION OF OUR RIGHTS
We may issue rights to purchase our debt securities, common stock or preferred stock. The following description of rights to purchase such securities provides certain general terms and provisions of such rights that we may offer. Our rights may be issued independently or together with any other security offered hereby and may or may not be transferable by the person receiving the rights in such offering. In connection with any offering of rights, we may enter into a standby arrangement with one or more underwriters or other purchasers pursuant to which the underwriters or other purchasers may be required to purchase all or a portion of any securities remaining unsubscribed for after such offering. Certain other terms of any rights will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. To the extent that any particular terms of any rights described in a prospectus supplement differ from any of the terms described in this prospectus, then those particular terms described in this prospectus shall be deemed to have been superseded by that prospectus supplement. The description in the applicable prospectus supplement of any rights we offer will not necessarily be complete and will be qualified in its entirety by reference to the applicable rights certificate, which will be filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or to a document that is incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus. For more information on how you may obtain copies of the rights certificate applicable to any rights we may offer, see “Where You Can Find More Information.” We urge you to read the applicable rights certificate and any applicable prospectus supplement in their entirety.
The prospectus supplement relating to any rights that we may offer will include specific terms relating to the offering, including, among other matters:

the date of determining the security holders entitled to the rights distribution;

the aggregate number of rights issued and the aggregate amount of debt securities or the number of shares of common stock or preferred stock purchasable upon exercise of the rights;

the exercise price;

the conditions to completion of the rights offering;
 
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the date on which the right to exercise the rights will commence and the date on which the rights will expire; and

a discussion of U.S. federal income tax consequences related to the rights; and

any other material terms of the rights.
Each right would entitle the holder of the rights to purchase for cash the principal amount of debt securities or the number of shares of common stock or preferred stock at the exercise price set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. Rights may be exercised at any time up to the close of business on the expiration date for such rights as provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. After the close of business on the expiration date, all unexercised rights will become void.
DESCRIPTION OF OUR UNITS
The following description, together with the additional information we include in any applicable prospectus supplement, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the units that we may offer under this prospectus. Units may be offered independently or together with common stock, preferred stock, debt securities and/or warrants offered by any prospectus supplement, and may be attached to or separate from those securities.
While the terms we have summarized below will generally apply to any future units that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any series of units that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms of any units offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below.
We will incorporate by reference into the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part the form of unit agreement, including a form of unit certificate, if any, that describes the terms of the series of units we are offering before the issuance of the related series of units. The following summaries of material provisions of the units and the unit agreements are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the unit agreement applicable to a particular series of units. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplement related to the units that we sell under this prospectus, as well as the complete unit agreements that contain the terms of the units.
General
We may issue units consisting of common stock, preferred stock, depositary shares, warrants, debt securities, rights or any combination thereof. Each unit will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit. Thus, the holder of a unit will have the rights and obligations of a holder of each included security. The unit agreement under which a unit is issued may provide that the securities included in the unit may not be held or transferred separately, at any time, or at any time before a specified date.
We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of units, including the following:

the designation and terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances those securities may be held or transferred separately;

any provisions of the governing unit agreement that differ from those described below;

any provisions for the issuance, payment, settlement, transfer, or exchange of the units or of the securities comprising the units; and

a discussion of U.S. federal income tax consequences related to the rights.
The provisions described in this section, as well as those described under “Description of Common Stock,” “Description of Preferred Stock,” “Description of Warrants” and “Description of Debt Securities” will apply to each unit and to any common stock, preferred stock, debt security or warrant included in each unit, respectively.
 
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Issuance in Series
We may issue units in such amounts and in such numerous distinct series as we determine.
Enforceability of Rights by Holders of Units
Each unit agent will act solely as our agent under the applicable unit agreement and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust with any holder of any unit. A single bank or trust company may act as unit agent for more than one series of units. A unit agent will have no duty or responsibility in case of any default by us under the applicable unit agreement or unit, including any duty or responsibility to initiate any proceedings at law or otherwise, or to make any demand upon us. Any holder of a unit, without the consent of the related unit agent or the holder of any other unit, may enforce by appropriate legal action its rights as holder under any security included in the unit.
Title
We, the unit agent and any of its agents may treat the registered holder of any unit certificate as an absolute owner of the units evidenced by that certificate for any purposes and as the person entitled to exercise the rights attaching to the units, despite any notice to the contrary.
BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES
The securities offered by means of this prospectus may be issued in whole or in part in book-entry form, meaning that beneficial owners of the securities will not receive certificates representing their ownership interests in the securities, except in the event the book-entry system for the securities is discontinued. Securities issued in book entry form will be evidenced by one or more global securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, a depositary identified in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to the securities. We expect that The Depository Trust Company will serve as depository. Unless and until it is exchanged in whole or in part for the individual securities represented by that security, a global security may not be transferred except as a whole by the depository for the global security to a nominee of that depository or by a nominee of that depository to that depository or another nominee of that depository or by the depository or any nominee of that depository to a successor depository or a nominee of that successor. Global securities may be issued in either registered or bearer form and in either temporary or permanent form. The specific terms of the depositary arrangement with respect to a class or series of securities that differ from the terms described here will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we anticipate that the provisions described below will apply to depository arrangements.
Upon the issuance of a global security, the depository for the global security or its nominee will credit on its book-entry registration and transfer system the respective principal amounts of the individual securities represented by that global security to the accounts of persons that have accounts with such depository, who are called “participants.” Those accounts will be designated by the underwriters, dealers or agents with respect to the securities or by us if the securities are offered and sold directly by us. Ownership of beneficial interests in a global security will be limited to the depository’s participants or persons that may hold interests through those participants. Ownership of beneficial interests in the global security will be shown on, and the transfer of that ownership will be effected only through, records maintained by the applicable depository or its nominee (with respect to beneficial interests of participants) and records of the participants (with respect to beneficial interests of persons who hold through participants). The laws of some states require that certain purchasers of securities take physical delivery of such securities in definitive form. These limits and laws may impair the ability to own, pledge or transfer beneficial interest in a global security.
So long as the depository for a global security or its nominee is the registered owner of such global security, that depository or nominee, as the case may be, will be considered the sole owner or holder of the securities represented by that global security for all purposes under the applicable indenture or other instrument defining the rights of a holder of the securities. Except as provided below or in the applicable prospectus supplement, owners of beneficial interest in a global security will not be entitled to have any of the individual securities of the series represented by that global security registered in their names, will not
 
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receive or be entitled to receive physical delivery of any such securities in definitive form and will not be considered the owners or holders of that security under the applicable indenture or other instrument defining the rights of the holders of the securities.
Payments of amounts payable with respect to individual securities represented by a global security registered in the name of a depository or its nominee will be made to the depository or its nominee, as the case may be, as the registered owner of the global security representing those securities. None of us, our officers and directors or any trustee, paying agent or security registrar for an individual series of securities will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to or payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in the global security for such securities or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to those beneficial ownership interests.
We expect that the depository for a series of securities offered by means of this prospectus or its nominee, upon receipt of any payment of principal, premium, interest, dividend or other amount in respect of a permanent global security representing any of those securities, will immediately credit its participants’ accounts with payments in amounts proportionate to their respective beneficial interests in the principal amount of that global security for those securities as shown on the records of that depository or its nominee. We also expect that payments by participants to owners of beneficial interests in that global security held through those participants will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices, as is the case with securities held for the account of customers in bearer form or registered in “street name.” Those payments will be the responsibility of these participants.
If a depository for a series of securities is at any time unwilling, unable or ineligible to continue as depository and a successor depository is not appointed by us within 90 days, we will issue individual securities of that series in exchange for the global security representing that series of securities. In addition, we may, at any time and in our sole discretion, subject to any limitations described in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to those securities, determine not to have any securities of that series represented by one or more global securities and, in that event, will issue individual securities of that series in exchange for the global security or securities representing that series of securities.
 
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MATERIAL PROVISIONS OF MARYLAND LAW AND OF OUR CHARTER AND BYLAWS
The following is a summary of certain provisions of Maryland law and of our charter and bylaws. Copies of our charter and bylaws are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. See “Where You Can Find More Information.”
The Board of Directors
Our bylaws provide that the number of directors of our Company may be established by our board of directors but may not be fewer than the minimum number permitted under the MGCL nor more than 15. Any vacancy will be filled, at any regular meeting or at any special meeting called for that purpose, by a majority of the remaining directors.
Pursuant to our charter, each member of our board of directors will serve one year terms. See “Description of Our Common Stock” for further information regarding the election of directors.
Business Combinations
Maryland law prohibits “business combinations” between a corporation and an interested stockholder or an affiliate of an interested stockholder for five years after the most recent date on which the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. These business combinations include a merger, consolidation, statutory share exchange, or, in circumstances specified in the statute, certain transfers of assets, certain stock issuances and transfers, liquidation plans and reclassifications involving interested stockholders and their affiliates as asset transfer or issuance or reclassification of equity securities. Maryland law defines an interested stockholder as:

any person who beneficially owns 10% or more of the voting power of our voting stock; or

an affiliate or associate of the corporation who, at any time within the two-year period prior to the date in question, was the beneficial owner of 10% or more of the voting power of the then-outstanding voting stock of the corporation.
A person is not an interested stockholder if the board of directors approves in advance the transaction by which the person otherwise would have become an interested stockholder. However, in approving the transaction, the board of directors may provide that its approval is subject to compliance, at or after the time of approval, with any terms and conditions determined by the board of directors.
After the five year prohibition, any business combination between a corporation and an interested stockholder generally must be recommended by the board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of at least:

80% of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of the then outstanding shares of common stock; and

two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of the common stock other than shares held by the interested stockholder with whom or with whose affiliate the business combination is to be effected or shares held by an affiliate or associate of the interested stockholder.
These super-majority vote requirements do not apply if certain fair price requirements set forth in the MGCL are satisfied.
The statute permits various exemptions from its provisions, including business combinations that are approved by the board of directors before the time that the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder.
Our charter includes a provision excluding the corporation from these provisions of the MGCL and, consequently, the five-year prohibition and the super-majority vote requirements will not apply to business combinations between us and any interested stockholder of ours unless we later amend our charter, with stockholder approval, to modify or eliminate this provision.
Control Share Acquisitions
The MGCL provides that “control shares” of a Maryland corporation acquired in a “control share acquisition” have no voting rights except to the extent approved at a special meeting by the affirmative vote
 
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of two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter, excluding shares of stock in a corporation in respect of which any of the following persons is entitled to exercise or direct the exercise of the voting power of shares of stock of the corporation in the election of directors: (i) a person who makes or proposes to make a control share acquisition, (ii) an officer of the corporation or (iii) an employee of the corporation who is also a director of the corporation. “Control shares” are voting shares of stock which, if aggregated with all other such shares of stock previously acquired by the acquiror or in respect of which the acquiror is able to exercise or direct the exercise of voting power (except solely by virtue of a revocable proxy), would entitle the acquiror to exercise voting power in electing directors within one of the following ranges of voting power: (i) one-tenth or more but less than one-third, (ii) one-third or more but less than a majority, or (iii) a majority or more of all voting power. Control shares do not include shares the acquiring person is then entitled to vote as a result of having previously obtained stockholder approval. A “control share acquisition” means the acquisition, directly or indirectly, by any person of ownership, or the power to direct the exercise of voting power with respect to, issued and outstanding control shares, subject to certain exceptions.
A person who has made or proposes to make a control share acquisition, upon satisfaction of certain conditions (including an undertaking to pay expenses), may compel our board of directors to call a special meeting of stockholders to be held within 50 days of demand to consider the voting rights of the shares. If no request for a meeting is made, the corporation may itself present the question at any stockholders meeting.
If voting rights are not approved at the meeting or if the acquiring person does not deliver an acquiring person statement as required by the statute, then, subject to certain conditions and limitations, the corporation may redeem any or all of the control shares (except those for which voting rights have previously been approved) for fair value determined, without regard to the absence of voting rights for the control shares, as of the date of the last control share acquisition by the acquiror or of any meeting of stockholders at which the voting rights of such shares are considered and not approved. If voting rights for control shares are approved at a stockholders meeting and the acquiror becomes entitled to vote a majority of the shares entitled to vote, all other stockholders may exercise appraisal rights. The fair value of the shares as determined for purposes of such appraisal rights may not be less than the highest price per share paid by the acquiror in the control share acquisition.
The control share acquisition statute does not apply to (i) shares acquired in a merger, consolidation or share exchange if the corporation is a party to the transaction or (ii) acquisitions approved or exempted by the charter or bylaws of the corporation at any time prior to the acquisition of the shares.
Our charter contains a provision exempting from the control share acquisition statute any and all acquisitions by any person of our common stock and, consequently, the applicability of the control share acquisitions unless we later amend our charter, with stockholder approval, to modify or eliminate this provision.
Amendment to Our Charter
Our charter may be amended only if declared advisable by the board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least two-thirds of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter.
Dissolution of Our Company
The dissolution of our Company must be declared advisable by the board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of the holders of not less than two-thirds of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter.
Advance Notice of Director Nominations and New Business
Our bylaws provide that:

with respect to an annual meeting of stockholders, the only business to be considered and the only proposals to be acted upon will be those properly brought before the annual meeting:

pursuant to our notice of the meeting;
 
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by, or at the direction of, a majority of our board of directors; or

by a stockholder who is entitled to vote at the meeting and has complied with the advance notice procedures set forth in our bylaws;

with respect to special meetings of stockholders, only the business specified in our Company’s notice of meeting may be brought before the meeting of stockholders unless otherwise provided by law; and

nominations of persons for election to our board of directors at any annual or special meeting of stockholders may be made only:

by, or at the direction of, our board of directors; or

by a stockholder who is entitled to vote at the meeting and has complied with the advance notice provisions set forth in our bylaws.
Anti-Takeover Effect of Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of Our Charter and Bylaws
The advance notice provisions of our bylaws could delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change of control of our Company that might involve a premium price for holders of our common stock or that stockholders otherwise believe may be in their best interest. Likewise, if our Company’s charter were to be amended to avail the corporation of the business combination provisions of the MGCL or to remove or modify the provision in the charter opting out of the control share acquisition provisions of the MGCL, these provisions of the MGCL could have similar anti-takeover effects.
Indemnification and Limitation of Directors’ and Officers’ Liability
Our charter and the partnership agreement provide for indemnification of our officers and directors against liabilities to the fullest extent permitted by the MGCL, as amended from time to time.
The MGCL permits a corporation to indemnify a director or officer who has been successful, on the merits or otherwise, in the defense of any proceeding to which he or she is made a party by reason of his or her service in that capacity. The MGCL permits a corporation to indemnify its present and former directors and officers, among others, against judgments, penalties, fines, settlements and reasonable expenses actually incurred by them in connection with any proceeding to which they may be made a party by reason of their service in those or other capacities unless it is established that:

an act or omission of the director or officer was material to the matter giving rise to the proceeding and:

was committed in bad faith;

was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty;

the director or officer actually received an improper personal benefit in money, property or services; or

in the case of any criminal proceeding, the director or officer had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful.
However, under the MGCL, a Maryland corporation may not indemnify for an adverse judgment in a suit by or in the right of the corporation (other than for expenses incurred in a successful defense of such an action) or for a judgment of liability on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received. In addition, the MGCL permits a corporation to advance reasonable expenses to a director or officer upon the corporation’s receipt of:

a written affirmation by the director or officer of his good faith belief that he has met the standard of conduct necessary for indemnification by the corporation; and

a written undertaking by the director or on the director’s behalf to repay the amount paid or reimbursed by the corporation if it is ultimately determined that the director did not meet the standard of conduct.
 
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The MGCL permits a Maryland corporation to include in its charter a provision limiting the liability of its directors and officers to the corporation and its stockholders for money damages except for liability resulting from actual receipt of an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services or active and deliberate dishonesty established by a final judgment as being material to the cause of action. Our charter contains such a provision which eliminates such liability to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law.
Our bylaws obligate us, to the fullest extent permitted by Maryland law in effect from time to time, to indemnify and, without requiring a preliminary determination of the ultimate entitlement to indemnification, pay or reimburse reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding to:

any present or former director or officer who is made a party to the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity; or

any individual who, while a director or officer of our Company and at our request, serves or has served another corporation, real estate investment trust, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or any other enterprise as a director, officer, partner or trustee and who is made a party to the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity.
Our bylaws also obligate us to indemnify and advance expenses to any person who served a predecessor of ours in any of the capacities described in second and third bullet points above and to any employee or agent of our Company or a predecessor of our Company.
The partnership agreement of our operating partnership provides that we, as general partner, and our officers and directors are indemnified to the fullest extent permitted by law. See “Partnership Agreement — Exculpation and Indemnification of the General Partner.”
Insofar as the foregoing provisions permit indemnification of directors, officers or persons controlling us for liability arising under the Securities Act, we have been informed that in the opinion of the SEC, this indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.
PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT
Management
Ashford Hospitality Limited Partnership, our operating partnership, has been organized as a Delaware limited partnership. One of our wholly-owned subsidiaries is the sole general partner of this partnership, and one of our subsidiaries holds limited partnership units in this partnership. A majority of the limited partnership units not owned by our Company are owned by certain of our directors, executive officers and affiliates of such persons. In the future, we may issue additional interests in our operating partnership to third parties.
Pursuant to the partnership agreement of the operating partnership, we, as the sole general partner, generally have full, exclusive and complete responsibility and discretion in the management, operation and control of the partnership, including the ability to cause the partnership to enter into certain major transactions, including acquisitions, developments and dispositions of properties, borrowings and refinancings of existing indebtedness. No limited partner may take part in the operation, management or control of the business of the operating partnership by virtue of being a holder of limited partnership units.
Our subsidiary may not be removed as general partner of the partnership. Upon the bankruptcy or dissolution of the general partner, the general partner shall be deemed to be removed automatically.
The limited partners of our operating partnership have agreed that in the event of a conflict in the fiduciary duties owed (i) by us to our stockholders and (ii) by us, as general partner of the operating partnership, to those limited partners, we may act in the best interests of our stockholders without violating our fiduciary duties to the limited partners of the operating partnership or being liable for any resulting breach of our duties to the limited partners.
Transferability of Interests
General Partner.   The partnership agreement provides that we may not transfer our interest as a general partner (including by sale, disposition, merger or consolidation) except:
 
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in connection with a merger of the operating partnership, a sale of substantially all of the assets of the operating partnership or other transaction in which the limited partners receive a certain amount of cash, securities or property; or

in connection with a merger of us or the general partner into another entity, if the surviving entity contributes substantially all its assets to the operating partnership and assumes the duties of the general partner under the operating partnership agreement.
Limited Partner.   The partnership agreement prohibits the sale, assignment, transfer, pledge or disposition of all or any portion of the limited partnership units without our consent, which we may give or withhold in our sole discretion. However, an individual partner may donate his units to his immediate family or a trust wholly owned by his immediate family, without our consent. The partnership agreement contains other restrictions on transfer if, among other things, that transfer:

would cause us to fail to comply with the REIT rules under the Code; or

would cause us to become a publicly-traded partnership under the Code.
Capital Contributions
The partnership agreement provides that if the partnership requires additional funds at any time in excess of funds available to the partnership from borrowing or capital contributions, we may borrow such funds from a financial institution or other lender and lend such funds to the partnership. Under the partnership agreement, we are obligated to contribute the proceeds of any offering of stock as additional capital to the partnership. The operating partnership is authorized to cause the partnership to issue partnership interests for less than fair market value if we conclude in good faith that such issuance is in both the partnership’s and our best interests.
The partnership agreement provides that we may make additional capital contributions, including properties, to the partnership in exchange for additional partnership units. If we contribute additional capital to the partnership and receive additional partnership interests for such capital contribution, our percentage interests will be increased on a proportionate basis based on the amount of such additional capital contributions and the value of the partnership at the time of such contributions. Conversely, the percentage interests of the other limited partners will be decreased on a proportionate basis. In addition, if we contribute additional capital to the partnership and receive additional partnership interests for such capital contribution, the capital accounts of the partners will be adjusted upward or downward to reflect any unrealized gain or loss attributable to our properties as if there were an actual sale of such properties at the fair market value thereof. Limited partners have no preemptive right to make additional capital contributions.
The operating partnership could issue preferred partnership interests in connection with acquisitions of property or otherwise. Any such preferred partnership interests would have priority over common partnership interests with respect to distributions from the partnership, including the partnership interests that our wholly-owned subsidiaries own.
Redemption Rights
Under the partnership agreement, we have granted to each limited partner holding common units (other than our subsidiary) the right to redeem its limited partnership units. This right may be exercised at the election of a limited partner by giving us written notice, subject to some limitations. The purchase price for the limited partnership units to be redeemed will equal the fair market value of our common stock adjusted by a conversion factor, as determined in the partnership agreement. The purchase price for the limited partnership units may be paid in cash, or, in our discretion, by the issuance by us of a number of shares of our common stock equal to the number of limited partnership units with respect to which the rights are being exercised. However, no limited partner will be entitled to exercise its redemption rights to the extent that the issuance of common stock to the redeeming partner would be prohibited under our charter or, if after giving effect to such exercise, would cause any person to own, actually or constructively, more than 9.8% of our common stock, unless such ownership limit is waived by us in our sole discretion.
 
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In all cases, however, no limited partner may exercise the redemption right for fewer than 1,000 partnership units or, if a limited partner holds fewer than 1,000 partnership units, all of the partnership units held by such limited partner.
Certain of our officers and employees of our advisor hold a special class of partnership units in our operating partnership referred to as long term incentive partnership units, or LTIP units. LTIP units vest over a number of years and whether vested or not, generally receive the same treatment as common units of our operating partnership, with the key difference being, at the time of the award, LTIP units do not have full economic parity with common units but can achieve such parity over time. The LTIP units will achieve parity with the common units upon the sale or deemed sale of all or substantially all of the assets of the partnership at a time when our stock is trading at some level in excess of the price it was trading at on the date of the LTIP issuance. More specifically, LTIP units will achieve full economic parity with common units in connection with (i) the actual sale of all or substantially all of the assets of our operating partnership or (ii) the hypothetical sale of such assets, which results from a capital account revaluation, as defined in the partnership agreement, for the operating partnership. A capital account revaluation generally occurs whenever there is an issuance of additional partnership interests or the redemption of partnership interests. If a sale, or deemed sale as a result of a capital account revaluation, occurs at a time when the operating partnership’s assets have sufficiently appreciated, the LTIP units will achieve full economic parity with the common units. However, in the absence of sufficient appreciation in the value of the assets of the operating partnership at the time a sale or deemed sale occurs, full economic parity would not be reached. If such parity is reached, vested LTIP units become convertible into an equal number of common units and at that time, the holder will have the redemption rights described above. Until and unless such parity is reached, the LTIP units are not redeemable. All of the LTIP units our operating partnership has issued have reached economic parity with the common units, except approximately 661,616 LTIP units issued in 2015 and 111,858 LTIP units issued in 2017 have not yet achieved such parity.
As of February 22, 2022, the aggregate number of shares of common stock issuable, at our option, upon exercise of the redemption rights by holders of common partnership units (including LTIP units that have reached economic parity with the common partnership units) is approximately 257,772. The number of shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of the redemption rights will be adjusted to account for share splits, mergers, consolidations or similar pro rata share transactions and changes in the conversion factor.
Conversion Rights
The holders of the LTIP units will have the right to convert vested LTIP units into ordinary common units on a one-for-one basis at any time after such LTIP units have achieved economic parity with the common units. No other limited partners have any conversion rights.
Operations
The partnership agreement requires the partnership to be operated in a manner that enables us to satisfy the requirements for being classified as a REIT, to minimize any excise tax liability imposed by the Code and to ensure that the partnership will not be classified as a “publicly traded partnership” taxable as a corporation under Section 7704 of the Code.
In addition to the administrative and operating costs and expenses incurred by the partnership, the partnership will pay all of our administrative costs and expenses. These expenses will be treated as expenses of the partnership and will generally include:

all expenses relating to our continuity of existence;

all expenses relating to offerings and registration of securities;

all expenses associated with the preparation and filing of any of our periodic reports under federal, state or local laws or regulations;

all expenses associated with our compliance with laws, rules and regulations promulgated by any regulatory body; and
 
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all of our other operating or administrative costs incurred in the ordinary course of its business on behalf of the partnership.
Distributions
The partnership agreement provides that the partnership will make cash distributions in amounts and at such times as determined by us in our sole discretion, to us and other limited partners in accordance with the respective percentage interests of the partners in the partnership.
Upon liquidation of the partnership, after payment of, or adequate provisions for, debts and obligations of the partnership, including any partner loans, any remaining assets of the partnership will be distributed to us and the other limited partners with positive capital accounts in accordance with the respective positive capital account balances of the partners.
Allocations
Profits and losses of the partnership (including depreciation and amortization deductions) for each fiscal year generally are allocated to us and the other limited partners in accordance with the respective percentage interests of the partners in the partnership. All of the foregoing allocations are subject to compliance with the provisions of Code sections 704(b) and 704(c) and Treasury Regulations promulgated thereunder. The partnership will use the “traditional method” under Code section 704(c) for allocating items with respect to which the fair market value at the time of contribution differs from the adjusted tax basis at the time of contribution for a hotel.
Amendments
Generally, we, as the general partner of the operating partnership, may amend the partnership agreement without the consent of any limited partner to clarify the partnership agreement, to make changes of an inconsequential nature, to reflect the admission, substitution or withdrawal of limited partners, to reflect the issuance of additional partnership interests or if, in the opinion of counsel, necessary or appropriate to satisfy the Code with respect to partnerships or REITs or federal or state securities laws. However, any amendment which alters or changes the distribution or redemption rights of a limited partner (other than a change to reflect the seniority of any distribution or liquidation rights of any preferred units issued in accordance with the partnership agreement), changes the method for allocating profits and losses, imposes any obligation on the limited partners to make additional capital contributions or adversely affects the limited liability of the limited partners requires the consent of holders of 6623% of the limited partnership units, excluding our indirect ownership of limited partnership units. Other amendments require approval of the general partner and holders of 50% of the limited partnership units including limited partnership units we indirectly hold.
In addition, the operating partnership may be amended, without the consent of any limited partner, in the event that we or any of our subsidiaries engages in a merger or consolidation with another entity and immediately after such transaction the surviving entity contributes to the operating partnership substantially all of the assets of such surviving entity and the surviving entity agrees to assume our subsidiary’s obligation as general partner of the partnership. In such case, the surviving entity will amend the operating partnership agreement to arrive at a new method for calculating the amount a limited partner is to receive upon redemption or conversion of a partnership unit (such method to approximate the existing method as much as possible).
Exculpation and Indemnification of the General Partner
The partnership agreement of our operating partnership provides that neither the general partner, nor any of its directors and officers will be liable to the partnership or to any of its partners as a result of errors in judgment or mistakes of fact or law or of any act or omission, if the general partner acted in good faith.
In addition, the partnership agreement requires our operating partnership to indemnify and hold the general partner and its directors, officers and any other person it designates, harmless from and against any
 
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and all claims arising from operations of the operating partnership in which any such indemnitee may be involved, or is threatened to be involved, as a party or otherwise, unless it is established that:

the act or omission of the indemnitee was material to the matter giving rise to the proceeding and was committed in bad faith or was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty;

the indemnitee actually received an improper personal benefit in money, property or services; or

in the case of any criminal proceeding, the indemnitee had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful.
No indemnitee may subject any partner of our operating partnership to personal liability with respect to this indemnification obligation as this indemnification obligation will be satisfied solely out of the assets of the partnership.
Term
The partnership has a perpetual life, unless dissolved upon:

the general partner’s bankruptcy or dissolution or withdrawal (unless the limited partners elect to continue the partnership);

the passage of 90 days after the sale or other disposition of all or substantially all the assets of the partnership;

the redemption of all partnership units (other than those held by us, if any); or

an election by us in our capacity as the sole owner of the general partner.
Tax Matters
For any taxable year beginning on or before December 31, 2017, the general partner is and will be the tax matters partner of the operating partnership, and for any taxable year beginning on or after January 1, 2018, the general partner will be the partnership representative of the operating partnership. We have the authority to make tax elections under the Code on behalf of the partnership. The net income or net loss of the operating partnership will generally be allocated to us and the limited partners in accordance with our respective percentage interests in the partnership, subject to compliance with the provisions of the Code.
MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS
The following discussion is a summary of the material U.S. federal income tax considerations that may be relevant to a prospective holder of securities. The discussion does not address all aspects of taxation that may be relevant to particular investors in light of their personal investment or tax circumstances, or to certain types of investors that are subject to special treatment under the federal income tax laws, such as:

insurance companies;

financial institutions or broker-dealers;

tax-exempt organizations (except to the limited extent discussed in “— Taxation of Tax-Exempt Stockholders”);

passive foreign investment companies or controlled foreign corporations;

persons who are not citizens or residents of the United States (except to the limited extent discussed in “— Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Stock” and “Holders of our Debt Securities — Non-U.S. Holders”);

investors who hold or will hold securities as part of hedging or conversion transactions;

investors subject to federal alternative minimum tax;

investors that have a principal place of business or “tax home” outside the United States;

investors whose functional currency is not the United States dollar;
 
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U.S. expatriates;

investors subject to special rules under Code Section 892;

persons who mark-to-market our securities;

subchapter S corporations;

regulated investment companies and REITs; and

persons who receive our securities through the exercise of employee stock options or otherwise as compensation.
If a partnership, entity or arrangement treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes holds our securities, the U.S. federal income tax treatment of a partner in the partnership will generally depend on the status of the partner and the activities of the partnership. If you are a partnership holding our securities, you should consult your tax advisor regarding the consequences to the partnership and its partners of the purchase, ownership and disposition of our securities by the partnership.
In addition, this discussion is limited to persons who hold our securities as a “capital asset” ​(generally, property held for investment) within the meaning of Section 1221 of the Code.
The statements of law in this discussion and the opinion of O’Melveny & Myers LLP are based on current provisions of the Code, existing, temporary and final Treasury regulations thereunder, and current administrative rulings and court decisions. No assurance can be given that future legislative, judicial, or administrative actions or decisions, which may be retroactive in effect, will not affect the accuracy of any statements in this prospectus with respect to the transactions entered into or contemplated prior to the effective date of such changes. Except for the private letter ruling we received on October 27, 2019 with respect to the eligible independent contractor status of certain subsidiaries of Ashford Inc., we have not received any rulings from the IRS concerning our qualification as a REIT. No assurance can be given that the IRS would not assert, or that a court would not sustain, a position contrary to any tax consequences described below.
We urge you to consult your own tax advisor regarding the specific tax consequences to you of ownership of our securities and of our election to be taxed as a REIT. Specifically, we urge you to consult your own tax advisor regarding the federal, state, local, foreign, and other tax consequences of such ownership and election and regarding potential changes in applicable tax laws.
Taxation of Our Company
We have elected to be taxed as a REIT under the U.S. federal income tax laws. We believe that, commencing with our short year ending December 31, 2003, we have been organized and operated in such a manner as to qualify for taxation as a REIT under the Code, and we intend to continue to operate in such a manner, but no assurance can be given that we will operate in a manner so as to continue to qualify as a REIT. This section discusses the laws governing the U.S. federal income tax treatment of a REIT and its investors. These laws are highly technical and complex.
In connection with this the filing of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, O’Melveny & Myers LLP has issued an opinion to us to the effect that, commencing with our short year ended December 31, 2003, we have been organized and operated in conformity with the requirements for qualification as a REIT, and our organization and current and proposed method of operation will enable us to continue to meet the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Code for our taxable year ending December 31, 2022 and thereafter. Investors should be aware that O’Melveny & Myers LLP’s opinion is based upon customary assumptions, is conditioned upon the accuracy of certain representations made by us as to factual matters, including representations regarding the nature of our properties and the prior and future conduct of our business, is conditioned upon the accuracy of certain representations made by Braemar Hotels & Resorts Inc. as to factual matters, including representations regarding its organization and operation, for its taxable year ended December 31, 2013, is conditioned upon the accuracy of certain representations made by Ashford Inc. as to factual matters, and is not binding upon the IRS or any court. In addition, O’Melveny & Myers LLP’s opinion is based on existing federal
 
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income tax law governing qualification as a REIT as of the date of the opinion, which is subject to change either prospectively or retroactively. Moreover, our continued qualification and taxation as a REIT depend upon our ability to meet on a continuing basis, through actual annual operating results, certain qualification tests set forth in the federal tax laws. Those qualification tests include the percentage of income that we earn from specified sources, the percentage of our assets that falls within specified categories, the diversity of our share ownership, and the percentage of our earnings that we distribute. While O’Melveny & Myers LLP has reviewed those matters in connection with its opinion, O’Melveny & Myers LLP will not review our compliance with those tests on a continuing basis. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that the actual results of our operations for any particular taxable year will satisfy such requirements. O’Melveny & Myers LLP’s opinion will not foreclose the possibility that we may have to use one or more REIT savings provisions discussed below, which could require us to pay an excise or penalty tax (which could be material) in order for us to maintain our REIT qualification. For a discussion of the tax consequences of our failure to qualify as a REIT, see “— Failure to Qualify.”
If we qualify as a REIT, we generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the taxable income that we distribute to our stockholders. The benefit of that tax treatment is that it avoids the “double taxation,” or taxation at both the corporate and stockholder levels, that generally results from owning stock in a C corporation. However, we will be subject to federal tax in the following circumstances:

We will pay U.S. federal income tax at regular corporate rates on taxable income, including net capital gain, that we do not distribute to our stockholders during, or within a specified time period after, the calendar year in which the income is earned.

We will pay income tax at the highest corporate rate on (1) net income from the sale or other disposition of property acquired through foreclosure (“foreclosure property”) that we hold primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business and (2) other non-qualifying income from foreclosure property.

We will pay a 100% tax on net income from sales or other dispositions of property, other than foreclosure property, that we hold primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business.

If we fail to satisfy the 75% gross income test or the 95% gross income test, as described below under “— Income Tests,” and nonetheless continue to qualify as a REIT because we meet other requirements, we will pay a 100% tax on (1) the gross income attributable to the greater of the amount by which we fail the 75% and 95% gross income tests, multiplied by (2) a fraction intended to reflect our profitability.

If we fail to distribute during a calendar year at least the sum of (1) 85% of our REIT ordinary income for such year, (2) 95% of our REIT capital gain net income for such year, and (3) any undistributed taxable income from prior periods, we will pay a 4% nondeductible excise tax on the excess of this required distribution over the sum of the amount we actually distributed, plus any retained amounts on which income tax has been paid at the corporate level.

We may elect to retain and pay income tax on our net long-term capital gain. In that case, a U.S. holder (as defined below under “— Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Stock”) would be taxed on its proportionate share of our undistributed long-term capital gain (to the extent that a timely designation of such gain is made by us to the stockholder) and would receive a credit or refund for its proportionate share of the tax we paid.

If we acquire any asset from a C corporation, a corporation that has been a C corporation or a corporation that generally is subject to full corporate-level tax, in a merger or other transaction in which we acquire a basis in the asset that is determined by reference to the C corporation’s basis in the asset, we will pay tax at the highest regular corporate rate applicable if we recognize gain on the sale or disposition of such asset during a specified period after we acquire such asset. The amount of gain on which we will pay tax generally is the lesser of: (1) the amount of gain that we recognize at the time of the sale or disposition; or (2) the amount of gain that we would have recognized if we had sold the asset at the time we acquired the asset.

We will incur a 100% excise tax on certain transactions with a taxable REIT subsidiary (“TRS”) that are not conducted on an arm’s-length basis and we will incur such 100% excise tax if it is determined we have been undercharged for certain services provided by a TRS.
 
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If we fail to satisfy certain asset tests, described below under “— Asset Tests” and nonetheless continue to qualify as a REIT because we meet certain other requirements, we will be subject to a tax of the greater of $50,000 or at the highest corporate rate on the income generated by the non-qualifying assets.

We may be subject to a $50,000 tax for each failure if we fail to satisfy certain REIT qualification requirements, other than income tests or asset tests, and the failure is due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect.
In addition, notwithstanding our qualification as a REIT, we may also have to pay certain state and local income taxes, because not all states and localities treat REITs in the same manner that they are treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Moreover, as further described below, any TRS in which we own an interest will be subject to federal and state corporate income tax on its taxable income.
Requirements for REIT Qualification
A REIT is a corporation, trust, or association that meets the following requirements:
(1)
it is managed by one or more trustees or directors;
(2)
its beneficial ownership is evidenced by transferable shares or by transferable certificates of beneficial interest;
(3)
it would be taxable as a domestic corporation but for the REIT provisions of the U.S. federal income tax laws;
(4)
it is neither a financial institution nor an insurance company subject to special provisions of the U.S. federal income tax laws;
(5)
at least 100 persons are beneficial owners of its shares or ownership certificates;
(6)
no more than 50% in value of its outstanding shares or ownership certificates is owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer individuals, as defined in the U.S. federal income tax laws to include certain entities, during the last half of each taxable year;
(7)
it elects to be a REIT, or has made such election for a previous taxable year, and satisfies all relevant filing and other administrative requirements established by the IRS that must be met to elect and maintain REIT status;
(8)
it uses a calendar year for U.S. federal income tax purposes and complies with the recordkeeping requirements of the U.S. federal income tax laws;
(9)
it meets certain other qualification tests, described below, regarding the nature of its income and assets and the amount of its distributions; and
(10)
it has no earnings and profits from any non-REIT taxable year at the close of any taxable year.
We must meet requirements 1 through 4, 7, 8 and 9 during our entire taxable year, must meet requirement 10 at the close of each taxable year and must meet requirement 5 during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months, or during a proportionate part of a taxable year of less than 12 months. If we comply with all the requirements for ascertaining the ownership of our outstanding shares in a taxable year and have no reason to know that we violated requirement 6, we will be deemed to have satisfied requirement 6 for such taxable year. For purposes of determining share ownership under requirement 6, an “individual” generally includes a supplemental unemployment compensation benefits plan, a private foundation, or a portion of a trust permanently set aside or used exclusively for charitable purposes. An “individual,” however, generally does not include a trust that is a qualified employee pension or profit sharing trust under the U.S. federal income tax laws, and beneficiaries of such a trust will be treated as holding shares of our stock in proportion to their actuarial interests in the trust for purposes of requirement 6. Requirements 5 and 6 applied to us beginning with our taxable year ended December 31, 2004.
We believe that we have been and will continue to be organized and have operated in a manner that has allowed us, and will continue to allow us, to satisfy conditions (1) through (10), inclusive, during the relevant
 
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time periods. We have issued sufficient stock with enough diversity of ownership to satisfy requirements 5 and 6 set forth above. In addition, our Charter restricts the ownership and transfer of our stock so that we should continue to satisfy requirements 5 and 6. The provisions of our Charter restricting the ownership and transfer of the stock are described in “Description of Our Capital Stock — Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer.” These restrictions, however, may not ensure that we will, in all cases, be able to satisfy such stock ownership requirements. If we fail to satisfy these stock ownership requirements, our qualification as a REIT may terminate.
If we comply with regulatory rules pursuant to which we are required to send annual letters to holders of our stock requesting information regarding the actual ownership of our stock, and we do not know, or exercising reasonable diligence would not have known, whether we failed to meet requirement 6 above, we will be treated as having met the requirement.
In addition, we must satisfy all relevant filing and other administrative requirements established by the IRS that must be met to elect and maintain REIT qualification.
Qualified REIT Subsidiaries
A corporation that is a “qualified REIT subsidiary” is not treated as a corporation separate from its parent REIT. All assets, liabilities, and items of income, deduction, and credit of a “qualified REIT subsidiary” are treated as assets, liabilities, and items of income, deduction, and credit of the REIT. A “qualified REIT subsidiary” is a corporation, other than a TRS, all of the capital stock of which is owned by the REIT. Thus, in applying the requirements described in this section, any “qualified REIT subsidiary” that we own will be ignored, and all assets, liabilities, and items of income, deduction, and credit of that subsidiary will be treated as our assets, liabilities, and items of income, deduction, and credit. Similarly, any wholly-owned limited liability company or certain wholly-owned partnerships that we own will be disregarded, and all assets, liabilities and items of income, deduction and credit of such limited liability company will be treated as ours.
Other Disregarded Entities and Partnerships
An unincorporated domestic entity, such as a partnership or limited liability company that has a single owner, generally is not treated as an entity separate from its parent for U.S. federal income tax purposes. An unincorporated domestic entity with two or more owners is generally treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In the case of a REIT that is a partner in a partnership that has other partners, the REIT is treated as owning its proportionate share of the assets of the partnership and as earning its allocable share of the gross income of the partnership for purposes of the applicable REIT qualification tests. For purposes of the 10% value test (as described below under “— Asset Tests”), our proportionate share is based on our proportionate interest in the equity interests and certain debt securities issued by the partnership. For all of the other asset and income tests, our proportionate share is based on our proportionate interest in the capital interests in the partnership. Our proportionate share of the assets, liabilities, and items of income of our operating partnership and of any other partnership, joint venture, or limited liability company that is treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes in which we own or will acquire an interest, directly or indirectly (each, a “Partnership” and, together, the “Partnerships”), are treated as our assets and gross income for purposes of applying the various REIT qualification requirements.
We may in the future acquire interests in partnerships and limited liability companies that are joint ventures in which we do not own general partner or managing member interests. If a partnership or limited liability company in which we own an interest takes or expects to take actions that could jeopardize our qualification as a REIT or require us to pay tax, we may be forced to dispose of our interest in such entity. In addition, it is possible that a partnership or limited liability company could take an action which could cause us to fail a REIT gross income or asset test, and that we would not become aware of such action in time to dispose of our interest in the partnership or limited liability company or take other corrective action on a timely basis. In that case, we could fail to qualify as a REIT unless we are able to qualify for a statutory REIT “savings” provision, which may require us to pay a significant penalty tax to maintain our REIT qualification.
 
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Taxable REIT Subsidiaries
Subject to restrictions on the value of TRS securities held by the REIT, a REIT is permitted to own up to 100% of the stock of one or more TRSs. A TRS is a fully taxable corporation and is required to pay regular U.S. federal income tax, and state and local income tax where applicable, as a non-REIT “C” corporation. In addition, a TRS may be prevented from deducting interest on debt funded directly or indirectly by us if certain tests are not satisfied, as described below in “— Interest Deduction Limitation.” The TRS and the REIT must jointly elect to treat the subsidiary as a TRS. A corporation of which a TRS directly or indirectly owns more than 35% of the voting power or value of the stock will be automatically treated as a TRS. A TRS may not directly or indirectly operate or manage any hotels or health care facilities or provide rights to any brand name under which any hotel or health care facility is operated but is permitted to lease hotels from a related REIT as long as the hotels are operated on behalf of the TRS by an “eligible independent contractor.” Overall, no more than 20% (25% with respect to taxable years beginning on or after July 31, 2008 and before January 1, 2018) of the value of a REIT’s assets may consist of TRS securities. A timely election has been made with respect to each of our TRSs. Each of our hotel properties is leased by one of our TRSs, except that one or more of our TRSs may own a hotel or hotels. Additionally, we may form or acquire one or more additional TRSs in the future. See the separate section below entitled “Taxable REIT Subsidiaries.”
Income Tests
We must satisfy two gross income tests annually to maintain our qualification as a REIT. First, at least 75% of our gross income for each taxable year must consist of defined types of income that we derive, directly or indirectly, from investments relating to real property or mortgages on real property or qualified temporary investment income. Qualifying income for purposes of that 75% gross income test generally includes:

rents from real property;

interest on debt secured by mortgages on real property or on interests in real property;

dividends or other distributions on, and gain from the sale of, shares in other REITs;

gain from the sale of real estate assets;

income derived from the temporary investment of new capital or “qualified temporary investment income,” that is attributable to the issuance of our stock or a public offering of our debt with a maturity date of at least five years and that we receive during the one-year period beginning on the date on which we received such new capital; and

income and gain derived from foreclosure property, as defined below under “— Foreclosure Property.”
Second, in general, at least 95% of our gross income for each taxable year must consist of income that is qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, other types of dividends and interest, gain from the sale or disposition of stock or securities, or any combination of these. Gross income from our sale of any property that we hold primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business and cancellation of indebtedness, or COD, income is excluded from both income tests. Certain foreign currency gains will be excluded from gross income for purposes of one or both of the gross income tests, as discussed below in “— Foreign Currency Gain.” In addition, income and gain from “hedging transactions,” as defined in the section below entitled “— Hedging Transactions,” that we enter into, or have entered into, will be excluded from both the numerator and the denominator for purposes of the 95% gross income test and the 75% gross income test. Rules similar to those applicable to income from “hedging transactions” apply to income arising from transactions that we enter into, or have entered into, primarily to manage risk of currency fluctuations with respect to any item of income or gain included in the computation of the 95% income test or the 75% income test (or any property which generates such income or gain). The following paragraphs discuss the specific application of the gross income tests to us.
Rents from Real Property.   Rent that we receive from real property that we own and lease to tenants will qualify as “rents from real property,” which is qualifying income for purposes of the 75% and 95% gross income tests, only if the following conditions are met:
 
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First, the rent must not be based, in whole or in part, on the income or profits of any person but may be based on a fixed percentage or percentages of gross receipts or gross sales.

Second, neither we nor a direct or indirect owner of 10% or more of our shares of stock may own, actually or constructively, 10% or more by vote or value of a tenant, other than a TRS, from whom we receive rent. If the tenant is a TRS either (i) at least 90% of the property is leased to unrelated tenants and the rent paid by the TRS is substantially comparable to the rent paid by the unrelated tenants for comparable space or (ii) the TRS leases a qualified lodging facility or qualified health care property and engages an “eligible independent contractor” to operate such facility or property on its behalf.

Third, if the rent attributable to personal property leased in connection with a lease of real property exceeds 15% of the total rent received under the lease, then the portion of rent attributable to that personal property will not qualify as “rents from real property.” If rent attributable to personal property leased in connection with a lease of real property is 15% or less of the total rent received under the lease, then the rent attributable to personal property will qualify as rents from real property.

Fourth, we generally must not operate or manage our real property or furnish or render services to our tenants, other than through an “independent contractor” who is adequately compensated, from whom we do not derive revenue, and who does not, directly or through its stockholders, own more than 35% of our shares of stock, taking into consideration the applicable ownership attribution rules. However, we need not provide services through an “independent contractor,” but instead may provide services directly to our tenants, if the services are “usually or customarily rendered” in the geographic area in connection with the rental of space for occupancy only and are not considered to be provided for the tenants’ convenience. In addition, we may provide a minimal amount of “non-customary” services to the tenants of a property, other than through an independent contractor, as long as our income from the services (valued at not less than 150% of our direct cost of performing such services) does not exceed 1% of our income from the related property. Furthermore, we may own up to 100% of the stock of a TRS which may provide customary and non-customary services to our tenants without tainting our rental income from the related properties. See “— Taxable REIT Subsidiaries.”
Pursuant to percentage leases, our TRSs lease each of our properties (other than ones they may own). The percentage leases provide that our TRSs are obligated to pay to the Partnerships (1) a minimum base rent plus percentage rent based on gross revenue and (2) “additional charges” or other expenses, as defined in the leases. Percentage rent is calculated by multiplying fixed percentages by revenues for each of the hotels. Both base rent and the thresholds in the percentage rent formulas may be adjusted for inflation.
In order for the base rent, percentage rent, and additional charges to constitute “rents from real property,” the percentage leases must be respected as true leases for U.S. federal income tax purposes and not treated as service contracts, joint ventures, or some other type of arrangement. The determination of whether the percentage leases are true leases depends on an analysis of all the surrounding facts and circumstances. In making such a determination, courts have considered a variety of factors, including the following:

the property owner’s expectation of receiving a pre-tax profit from the lease;

the intent of the parties;

the form of the agreement;

the degree of control over the property that is retained by the property owner, or whether the lessee has substantial control over the operation of the property or is required simply to use its best efforts to perform its obligations under the agreement;

the extent to which the property owner retains the risk of loss with respect to the property, or whether the lessee bears the risk of increases in operating expenses or the risk of damage to the property or the potential for economic gain or appreciation with respect to the property;

the lessee will be obligated to pay, at a minimum, substantial base rent for the period of use of the properties under the lease; and
 
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the lessee will stand to incur substantial losses or reap substantial gains depending on how successfully it, through the property managers, who work for the lessees during the terms of the leases, operates the properties.
In addition, U.S. federal income tax law provides that a contract that purports to be a service contract or a partnership agreement will be treated instead as a lease of property if the contract is properly treated as such, taking into account all relevant factors, including whether or not:

the service recipient is in physical possession of the property;

the service recipient controls the property;

the service recipient has a significant economic or possessory interest in the property, or whether the property’s use is likely to be dedicated to the service recipient for a substantial portion of the useful life of the property, the recipient shares the risk that the property will decline in value, the recipient shares in any appreciation in the value of the property, the recipient shares in savings in the property’s operating costs, or the recipient bears the risk of damage to or loss of the property;

the service provider bears the risk of substantially diminished receipts or substantially increased expenditures if there is nonperformance under the contract;

the service provider uses the property concurrently to provide significant services to entities unrelated to the service recipient; and

the total contract price substantially exceeds the rental value of the property for the contract period.
Since the determination of whether a service contract should be treated as a lease is inherently factual, the presence or absence of any single factor will not be dispositive in every case.
We believe that our percentage leases will be treated as true leases for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Such belief is based, in part, on the following facts:

the Partnerships, on the one hand, and our TRSs, on the other hand, intend for their relationship to be that of a lessor and lessee, and such relationship is documented by lease agreements;

our TRSs have the right to the exclusive possession, use, and quiet enjoyment of the hotels during the term of the percentage leases;

our TRSs bear the cost of, and are responsible for, day-to-day maintenance and repair of the hotels and generally dictate how the hotels are operated, maintained, and improved;

our TRSs bear all of the costs and expenses of operating the hotels, including the cost of any inventory used in their operation, during the term of the percentage leases, other than, in certain cases, real estate taxes;

our TRSs benefit from any savings in the costs of operating the hotels during the term of the percentage leases;

our TRSs generally indemnify the Partnerships against all liabilities imposed on the Partnerships during the term of the percentage leases by reason of (1) injury to persons or damage to property occurring at the hotels, (2) our TRSs’ use, management, maintenance, or repair of the hotels, (3) any environmental liability caused by acts or grossly negligent failures to act of our TRSs, (4) taxes and assessments in respect of the hotels that are the obligations of our TRSs, or (5) any breach of the percentage leases or of any sublease of a hotel by our TRSs;

our TRSs are obligated to pay, at a minimum, substantial base rent for the period of use of the hotels;

our TRSs stand to incur substantial losses or reap substantial gains depending on how successfully they operate the hotels;

the Partnerships cannot use the hotels concurrently to provide significant services to entities unrelated to our TRSs;

the total contract price under the percentage leases does not substantially exceed the rental value of the hotels for the term of the percentage leases;
 
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each lease, at the time we entered into it enabled the tenant to derive a meaningful profit, after expenses and taking into account the risks associated with the lease, from the operation of the hotels during the term of its leases (and we expect that each lease, at any time it is subsequently renewed or extended, will do the same); and

upon termination of each lease, the applicable hotel is expected to have a substantial remaining useful life and substantial remaining fair market value.
Investors should be aware that there are no controlling Treasury regulations, published rulings, or judicial decisions involving leases with terms substantially the same as the percentage leases that discuss whether such leases constitute true leases for U.S. federal income tax purposes. If the percentage leases are characterized as service contracts or partnership agreements, rather than as true leases, part or all of the payments that the Partnerships receive from our TRSs may not be considered rent or may not otherwise satisfy the various requirements for qualification as “rents from real property.” In that case, we likely would not be able to satisfy either the 75% or 95% gross income test and, as a result, would lose our REIT status. As described above, in order for the rent received by us to constitute “rents from real property,” several other requirements must be satisfied. One requirement is that the percentage rent must not be based in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person. The percentage rent, however, will qualify as “rents from real property” if it is based on percentages of gross receipts or gross sales and the percentages:

are fixed at the time the percentage leases are entered into;

are not renegotiated during the term of the percentage leases in a manner that has the effect of basing percentage rent on income or profits; and

conform with normal business practice.
More generally, the percentage rent will not qualify as “rents from real property” if, considering the percentage leases and all the surrounding circumstances, the arrangement does not conform with normal business practice, but is in reality used as a means of basing the percentage rent on income or profits. Since the percentage rent is based on fixed percentages of the gross revenues from the hotels that are established in the percentage leases, and we believe (and have represented to O’Melveny & Myers LLP in connection with its opinion) that the percentages (1) will not be renegotiated during the terms of the percentage leases in a manner that has the effect of basing the percentage rent on income or profits and (2) conform with normal business practice, the percentage rent should not be considered based in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person. Furthermore, we anticipate (and have represented to O’Melveny & Myers LLP in connection with its opinion) that, with respect to other hotel properties that we acquire in the future, we will not charge rent for any property that is based in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person, except by reason of being based on a fixed percentage of gross receipts or gross sales, as described above.
Another requirement for qualification of our rent as “rents from real property” is that we must not own, actually or constructively, 10% or more by vote or value of the stock of any corporate lessee or 10% or more by vote or value of the assets or net profits of any non-corporate lessee (a “related party tenant”) other than a TRS. All of our hotels are leased to TRSs (other than those owned by a TRS). In addition, our Charter prohibits transfers of our stock that would cause us to own actually or constructively, 10% or more by vote or value of the ownership interests in any non-TRS lessee. Based on the foregoing, we should never own, actually or constructively, 10% or more by vote or value of any lessee other than a TRS. However, because the constructive ownership rules are broad and it is not possible to monitor continually direct and indirect transfers of our stock, no absolute assurance can be given that such transfers or other events of which we have no knowledge will not cause us to own constructively 10% or more by vote or value of a lessee (or a subtenant, in which case only rent attributable to the subtenant is disqualified) other than a TRS at some future date.
As described above, we may own up to 100% of the capital stock of one or more TRSs. A TRS is a fully taxable corporation that generally may engage in any business, including the provision of customary or non-customary services to tenants of its parent REIT, except that a TRS may not directly or indirectly operate or manage any lodging facilities or health care facilities or provide rights to any brand name under which any lodging or health care facility is operated, unless such rights are provided to an “eligible independent
 
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contractor” to operate or manage a lodging or health care facility if such rights are held by the TRS as a franchisee, licensee, or in a similar capacity and such hotel is either owned by the TRS or leased to the TRS by its parent REIT. A TRS will not be considered to operate or manage a qualified lodging facility solely because the TRS directly or indirectly possesses a license, permit, or similar instrument enabling it to do so. Additionally, a TRS that employs individuals working at a qualified lodging facility outside the United States will not be considered to operate or manage a qualified lodging facility located outside of the United States, as long as an “eligible independent contractor” is responsible for the daily supervision and direction of such individuals on behalf of the TRS pursuant to a management agreement or similar service contract. However, rent that we receive from a TRS with respect to any property will qualify as “rents from real property” as long as the property is a “qualified lodging facility” and such property is operated on behalf of the TRS by a person from whom we derive no income who is adequately compensated, who does not, directly or through its stockholders, own more than 35% of our shares, taking into account certain ownership attribution rules, and who is, or is related to a person who is, actively engaged in the trade or business of operating “qualified lodging facilities” for any person unrelated to us and the TRS lessee (an “eligible independent contractor”). A “qualified lodging facility” is a hotel, motel, or other establishment more than one-half of the dwelling units in which are used on a transient basis, unless wagering activities are conducted at or in connection with such facility by any person who is engaged in the business of accepting wagers and who is legally authorized to engage in such business at or in connection with such facility. A “qualified lodging facility” includes customary amenities and facilities operated as part of, or associated with, the lodging facility as long as such amenities and facilities are customary for other properties of a comparable size and class owned by other unrelated owners. See “— Taxable REIT Subsidiaries.”
Our TRS lessees engage third-party hotel managers that qualify as “eligible independent contractors” to operate the related hotels on behalf of such TRS lessees.
A third requirement for qualification of our rent as “rents from real property” is that the rent attributable to the personal property leased in connection with the lease of a hotel must not be greater than 15% of the total rent received under the lease. The rent attributable to the personal property contained in a hotel is the amount that bears the same ratio to total rent for the taxable year as the average of the fair market values of the personal property at the beginning and at the end of the taxable year bears to the average of the aggregate fair market values of both the real and personal property contained in the hotel at the beginning and at the end of such taxable year (the “personal property ratio”). With respect to each hotel, we believe either that the personal property ratio is less than 15% or that any income attributable to excess personal property will not jeopardize our ability to qualify as a REIT. There can be no assurance, however, that the IRS would not challenge our calculation of a personal property ratio or that a court would not uphold such assertion. If such a challenge were successfully asserted, we could fail to satisfy the 95% or 75% gross income test and thus lose our REIT status.
A fourth requirement for qualification of our rent as “rents from real property” is that, other than within the 1% de minimis exception described above (i.e., we may provide a minimal amount of “non-customary” services to the tenants of a property, other than through a TRS or an independent contractor, as long as our income from the services does not exceed 1% of our income from the related property) and other than through a TRS, we cannot furnish or render noncustomary services to the tenants of our hotels, or manage or operate our hotels, other than through an independent contractor who is adequately compensated and from whom we do not derive or receive any income. Provided that the percentage leases are respected as true leases, we should satisfy that requirement, because the Partnerships will not perform any services other than customary services for our TRSs. Furthermore, we have represented that, with respect to other hotel properties that we acquire in the future, we will not perform noncustomary services for our TRSs.
If a portion of our rent from a hotel does not qualify as “rents from real property” because the rent attributable to personal property exceeds 15% of the total rent for a taxable year, the portion of the rent that is attributable to personal property will not be qualifying income for purposes of either the 75% or 95% gross income test. Thus, if such rent attributable to personal property, plus any other income that is nonqualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test, during a taxable year exceeds 5% of our gross income during the year, we would lose our REIT status. If, however, the rent from a particular hotel does not qualify as “rents from real property” because either (1) the percentage rent is considered based on the income or profits of the related lessee, (2) the lessee is a related party tenant other than a TRS, or (3) we
 
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furnish noncustomary services to the tenants of the hotel, or manage or operate the hotel, other than through a qualifying independent contractor or a TRS, none of the rent from that hotel would qualify as “rents from real property.”
In that case, we likely would be unable to satisfy either the 75% or 95% gross income test and, as a result, would lose our REIT status. However, in either situation, we may still qualify as a REIT if the relief described below under “— Failure to Satisfy Gross Income Tests” is available to us.
In addition to the rent, our TRSs are required to pay to the Partnerships certain additional charges. To the extent that such additional charges represent either (1) reimbursements of amounts that the Partnerships are obligated to pay to third parties or (2) penalties for nonpayment or late payment of such amounts, such charges should qualify as “rents from real property.” However, to the extent that such charges represent interest that is accrued on the late payment of the rent or additional charges, such charges will not qualify as “rents from real property,” but instead should be treated as interest that qualifies for the 95% gross income test.
Interest.   The term “interest,” as defined for purposes of both the 75% and 95% gross income tests, generally does not include any amount received or accrued, directly or indirectly, if the determination of such amount depends in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person. However, interest generally includes the following: (i) an amount that is based on a fixed percentage or percentages of receipts or sales, and (ii) an amount that is based on the income or profits of a debtor, as long as the debtor derives substantially all of its income from the real property securing the debt from leasing substantially all of its interest in the property, and only to the extent that the amounts received by the debtor would be qualifying “rents from real property” if received directly by a REIT. Furthermore, to the extent that interest from a loan that is based on the residual cash proceeds from the sale of the property securing the loan constitutes a “shared appreciation provision,” income attributable to such participation feature will be treated as gain from the sale of the secured property.
In Revenue Procedure 2003-65, the IRS established a safe harbor under which interest from loans secured by a first priority security interest in ownership interests in a partnership or limited liability company owning real property will be treated as qualifying income for both the 75% and 95% gross income tests, provided several requirements are satisfied. Although the Revenue Procedure provides a safe harbor on which taxpayers may rely, it does not prescribe rules of substantive tax law. Moreover, although we anticipate that most or all of any mezzanine loans that we make or acquire will qualify for the safe harbor in Revenue Procedure 2003-65, it is possible that we may make or acquire some mezzanine loans that do not qualify for the safe harbor. We intend to invest in such mezzanine loans in a manner that will allow us to satisfy the gross income tests described above.
Dividends.   Our share of any dividends received from any corporation (including any TRS, but excluding any REIT) in which we own an equity interest will qualify for purposes of the 95% gross income test but not for purposes of the 75% gross income test. Our share of any dividends or other distributions received from any other REIT in which we own an equity interest will be qualifying income for purposes of both gross income tests.
COD Income.   From time-to-time, we and our subsidiaries may recognize cancellation of indebtedness income (“COD income”) in connection with repurchasing debt at a discount. COD income is excluded from gross income for purposes of both the 95% gross income test and the 75% gross income test.
Foreign Currency Gain.   Certain foreign currency gains will be excluded from gross income for purposes of one or both of the gross income tests. “Real estate foreign exchange gain” is excluded from gross income for purposes of the 75% gross income test. Real estate foreign exchange gain generally includes foreign currency gain attributable to any item of income or gain that is qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, foreign currency gain attributable to the acquisition or ownership of (or becoming or being the obligor under) obligations secured by mortgages on real property or on interest in real property and certain foreign currency gain attributable to certain “qualified business units” of a REIT. “Passive foreign exchange gain” is excluded from gross income for purposes of the 95% gross income test. Passive foreign exchange gain generally includes real estate foreign exchange gain as described above, and also includes foreign currency gain attributable to any item of income or gain that is qualifying income for purposes
 
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of the 95% gross income test and foreign currency gain attributable to the acquisition or ownership of (or becoming or being the obligor under) obligations. Because passive foreign exchange gain includes real estate foreign exchange gain, real estate foreign exchange gain is excluded from gross income for purposes of both the 75% and 95% gross income tests. These exclusions for real estate foreign exchange gain and passive foreign exchange gain do not apply to foreign currency gain derived from dealing, or engaging in substantial and regular trading, in securities. Such gain is treated as nonqualifying income for purposes of both the 75% and 95% gross income tests.
Prohibited Transactions.   A REIT will incur a 100% tax on the net income (including foreign currency gain) derived from any sale or other disposition of property, other than foreclosure property, that the REIT holds primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business. Whether a REIT holds an asset “primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business” depends on the facts and circumstances in effect from time to time, including those related to a particular asset. We believe that none of the assets owned by the Partnerships is held primarily for sale to customers and that a sale of any such asset would not be to a customer in the ordinary course of the owning entity’s business. There are safe-harbor provisions in the U.S. federal income tax laws prescribing when an asset sale will not be characterized as a prohibited transaction. We cannot provide assurance, however, that we can comply with such safe-harbor provisions or that the Partnerships will avoid owning property that may be characterized as property held “primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business.”
Foreclosure Property.   We will be subject to tax at the maximum corporate rate on any income (including foreign currency gain) from foreclosure property, other than income that would be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, less expenses directly connected with the production of such income. However, gross income from such foreclosure property will qualify for purposes of the 75% and 95% gross income tests. “Foreclosure property” is any real property, including interests in real property, and any personal property incident to such real property:

that is acquired by a REIT as the result of such REIT having bid on such property at foreclosure, or having otherwise reduced such property to ownership or possession by agreement or process of law, after there was a default or default was imminent on a lease of such property or on an indebtedness that such property secured;

for which the related loan or lease was acquired by the REIT at a time when the REIT had no intent to evict or foreclose or the REIT did not know or have reason to know that default would occur; and

for which such REIT makes a proper election to treat such property as foreclosure property.
However, a REIT will not be considered to have foreclosed on a property where the REIT takes control of the property as a mortgagee-in-possession and cannot receive any profit or sustain any loss except as a creditor of the mortgagor. Property generally ceases to be foreclosure property with respect to a REIT at the end of the third taxable year following the taxable year in which the REIT acquired such property, or longer if an extension is granted by the Secretary of the Treasury. The foregoing grace period is terminated and foreclosure property ceases to be foreclosure property on the first day:

on which a lease is entered into with respect to such property that, by its terms, will give rise to income that does not qualify for purposes of the 75% gross income test or any amount is received or accrued, directly or indirectly, pursuant to a lease entered into on or after such day that will give rise to income that does not qualify for purposes of the 75% gross income test;

on which any construction takes place on such property, other than completion of a building, or any other improvement, where more than 10% of the construction of such building or other improvement was completed before default became imminent; or

which is more than 90 days after the day on which such property was acquired by the REIT and the property is used in a trade or business which is conducted by the REIT, other than through an independent contractor from whom the REIT itself does not derive or receive any income or through a TRS.
As a result of the rules with respect to foreclosure property, if a lessee defaults on its obligations under a percentage lease, we terminate the lessee’s leasehold interest, and we are unable to find a replacement lessee
 
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for the hotel within 90 days of such foreclosure, gross income from hotel operations conducted by us from such hotel would cease to qualify for the 75% and 95% gross income tests unless we are able to hire an independent contractor or use a TRS to manage and operate the hotel. In such event, we might be unable to satisfy the 75% and 95% gross income tests and, thus, might fail to qualify as a REIT.
Hedging Transactions.   From time to time, we may enter into hedging transactions with respect to one or more of our assets or liabilities. Our hedging activities may include entering into interest rate swaps, caps, floors, options to purchase such items, futures and forward contracts. To the extent that we enter into hedging transactions, income arising from “clearly identified” hedging transactions that are entered into by the REIT in the normal course of business, either directly or through certain subsidiary entities, to manage the risk of interest rate movements, price changes, or currency fluctuations with respect to borrowings or obligations incurred or to be incurred by the REIT to acquire or carry real estate assets is excluded from the 95% income test and the 75% income test. In general, for a hedging transaction to be “clearly identified,” (A) the transaction must be identified as a hedging transaction before the end of the day on which it is entered into, and (B) the items or risks being hedged must be identified “substantially contemporaneously” with the hedging transaction, meaning that the identification of the items or risks being hedged must generally occur within 35 days after the date the transaction is entered into. Rules similar to those applicable to income from hedging transactions, discussed above, apply to income arising from transactions that are entered into by the REIT primarily to manage risk of currency fluctuations with respect to any item of income or gain included in the computation of the 95% income test or the 75% income test (or any property which generates such income or gain). In addition, similar rules apply to income from positions that primarily manage risk with respect to a prior hedge entered into by a REIT in connection with the extinguishment or disposal (in whole or in part) of the liability or asset related to such prior hedge, to the extent the new position qualifies as a hedge or would so qualify if the hedge position were ordinary property. We intend to structure any hedging transactions in a manner that does not jeopardize our status as a REIT. The REIT income and asset rules may limit our ability to hedge loans or securities acquired as investments.
We have entered into certain derivative transactions to protect against risks not specifically associated with debt incurred to acquire qualified REIT assets. The REIT provisions of the Code limit our income and assets in each year from such derivative transactions. Failure to comply with the asset or income limitations within the REIT provisions of the Code could result in penalty taxes or loss of our REIT status. We have contributed non-qualifying derivatives to our TRSs to preserve our REIT status, which may result in any income from such transactions being subject to U.S. federal income taxation, and we may elect to contribute non-qualifying derivatives to our TRSs in the future.
Failure to Satisfy Gross Income Tests.   If we fail to satisfy one or both of the gross income tests for any taxable year, we nevertheless may qualify as a REIT for such year if we qualify for relief under certain provisions of the U.S. federal income tax laws. Those relief provisions generally will be available if:

our failure to meet such tests is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect; and

following our identification of the failure to meet one or both gross income tests for a taxable year, a description of each item of our gross income included in the 75% or 95% gross income tests is set forth in a schedule for such taxable year filed as specified by Treasury regulations.
We cannot predict, however, whether in all circumstances we would qualify for the relief provisions. In addition, as discussed above in “— Taxation of Our Company,” even if the relief provisions apply, we would incur a 100% tax on the gross income attributable to the greater of the amounts by which we fail the 75% and 95% gross income tests, multiplied by a fraction intended to reflect our profitability.
Asset Tests
To maintain our qualification as a REIT, we also must satisfy the following asset tests at the close of each quarter of each taxable year:

First, at least 75% of the value of our total assets must consist of:

cash or cash items, including certain receivables;

government securities;
 
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interests in real property, including leaseholds and options to acquire real property and leaseholds;

interests in mortgages on real property or, for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2015, on interests in real property;

interests in mortgages on both real and personal property where the fair market value of such personal property does not exceed 15% of the total fair market value of all such property;

personal property to the extent that rents attributable to such personal property are treated as rents from real property under the income test, as discussed above under “— Rents From Real Property”;

stock in other REITs;

debt issued by publicly traded REITs; and

investments in stock or debt instruments during the one-year period following our receipt of new capital that we raise through equity offerings or offerings of debt with at least a five-year term.

Second, except with respect to a TRS, of our investments not included in the 75% asset class, the value of our interest in any one issuer’s securities may not exceed 5% of the value of our total assets.

Third, except with respect to a TRS, of our investments not included in the 75% asset class, we may not own more than 10% of the voting power or value of any one issuer’s outstanding securities, or the 10% vote test or the 10% value test, respectively.

Fourth, no more than 20% (25% with respect to taxable years beginning on or after July 31, 2008 and before January 1, 2018) of the value of our total assets may consist of the securities of one or more TRSs.

Fifth, no more than 25% of the value of our total assets may consist of certain debt issued by publicly traded REITs.
For purposes of the second and third asset tests, the term “securities” does not include stock in another REIT, equity or debt securities of a qualified REIT subsidiary or TRS, or equity interests in a partnership.
For purposes of the 10% value test, the term “securities” does not include:

“Straight debt” securities, which is defined as a written unconditional promise to pay on demand or on a specified date a sum certain in money if (i) the debt is not convertible, directly or indirectly, into stock, and (ii) the interest rate and interest payment dates are not contingent on profits, the borrower’s discretion, or similar factors. “Straight debt” securities do not include any securities issued by a partnership or a corporation in which we or any controlled TRS (i.e., a TRS in which we own directly or indirectly more than 50% of the voting power or value of the stock) hold non-“straight debt” securities that have an aggregate value of more than 1% of the issuer’s outstanding securities. However, “straight debt” securities include debt subject to the following contingencies:

a contingency relating to the time of payment of interest or principal, as long as either (i) there is no change to the effective yield of the debt obligation, other than a change to the annual yield that does not exceed the greater of 0.25% or 5% of the annual yield, or (ii) neither the aggregate issue price nor the aggregate face amount of the issuer’s debt obligations held by us exceeds $1 million and no more than 12 months of unaccrued interest on the debt obligations can be required to be prepaid; and

a contingency relating to the time or amount of payment upon a default or prepayment of a debt obligation, as long as the contingency is consistent with customary commercial practice.

Any loan to an individual or an estate.

Any “section 467 rental agreement,” other than an agreement with a related party tenant.

Any obligation to pay “rents from real property.”

Certain securities issued by governmental entities.

Any security issued by a REIT.
 
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Any debt instrument of an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes to the extent of our interest as a partner in the partnership.

Any debt instrument of an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes not described in the preceding bullet points if at least 75% of the partnership’s gross income, excluding income from prohibited transactions, is qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test described above in “— Income Tests.”
For purposes of the 10% value test, our proportionate share of the assets of a partnership is our proportionate interest in any securities issued by the partnership, without regard to the securities described in the last two bullet points above.
We may make or acquire some mezzanine loans that are secured only by a first priority security interest in ownership interests in a partnership or limited liability company and that do not qualify for the safe harbor in Revenue Procedure 2003-65 relating to the 75% asset test and that do not qualify as “straight debt” for purposes of the 10% value test. We will make or acquire mezzanine loans that do not qualify for the safe harbor in Revenue Procedure 2003-65 or as “straight debt” securities only to the extent that such loans will not cause us to fail the asset tests described above.
We will monitor the status of our assets for purposes of the various asset tests and seek to manage our assets to comply at all times with such tests. There can be no assurances, however, that we will be successful in this effort. In this regard, to determine our compliance with these requirements, we need to estimate the value of the real estate securing our mortgage loans at various times. In addition, we have to value our investment in our other assets to ensure compliance with the asset tests. Although we seek to be prudent in making these estimates, there can be no assurances that the IRS might not disagree with these determinations and assert that a different value is applicable, in which case we might not satisfy the 75% and the other asset tests and would fail to qualify as a REIT. If we fail to satisfy the asset tests at the end of a calendar quarter, we will not lose our REIT qualification if:

we satisfied the asset tests at the end of the preceding calendar quarter; and

the discrepancy between the value of our assets and the asset test requirements arose from changes in the market values of our assets and was not wholly or partly caused by the acquisition of one or more non-qualifying assets.
If we did not satisfy the condition described in the second item, above, we still could avoid disqualification by eliminating any discrepancy within 30 days after the close of the calendar quarter in which it arose.
If we violate the second or third asset tests described above at the end of any calendar quarter, we will not lose our REIT qualification if (i) the failure is de minimis (up to the lesser of 1% of our assets or $10 million) and (ii) we dispose of assets or otherwise comply with the asset tests within six months after the last day of the quarter in which we identified such failure. In the event of a more than de minimis failure of any of the asset tests, as long as the failure was due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect, we will not lose our REIT qualification if we (i) dispose of assets or otherwise comply with the asset tests within six months after the last day of the quarter in which we identified such failure, (ii) file a schedule with the IRS describing the assets that caused such failure in accordance with regulations promulgated by the Secretary of Treasury and (iii) pay a tax equal to the greater of $50,000 or the highest rate of federal corporate income tax of the net income from the nonqualifying assets during the period in which we failed to satisfy the asset tests.
Distribution Requirements
Each taxable year, we must distribute dividends, other than capital gain dividends and deemed distributions of retained capital gain, to our stockholders in an aggregate amount at least equal to:

the sum of (1) 90% of our “REIT taxable income,” computed without regard to the dividends paid deduction and our net capital gain, and (2) 90% of our after-tax net income, if any, from foreclosure property; minus

the sum of certain items of non-cash income.
 
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In addition, our REIT taxable income will be reduced by any taxes we are required to pay on any gain we recognize from the disposition of any asset we acquired from a corporation that is or has been a C corporation in a transaction in which our tax basis in the asset is less than the fair market value of the asset, in each case determined as of the date on which we acquired the asset, within the five-year period following our acquisition of such asset, as described above under “— Taxation of Our Company”.
We must pay such distributions in the taxable year to which they relate, or in the following taxable year if we declare the distribution before we timely file our U.S. federal income tax return for such year and pay the distribution on or before the first regular dividend payment date after such declaration. Any dividends declared in the last three months of the taxable year, payable to stockholders of record on a specified date during such period, will be treated as paid on December 31 of such year if such dividends are distributed during January of the following year.
We will pay U.S. federal income tax on taxable income, including net capital gain, that we do not distribute to our stockholders. Furthermore, if we fail to distribute during a calendar year, or by the end of January following such calendar year in the case of distributions with declaration and record dates falling in the last three months of the calendar year, at least the sum of:

85% of our REIT ordinary income for such year;

95% of our REIT capital gain income for such year; and

any undistributed taxable income from prior periods,
we will incur a 4% nondeductible excise tax on the excess of such required distribution over the amounts we actually distributed. We may elect to retain and pay income tax on the net long-term capital gain we receive in a taxable year. See “— Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Stock — Distributions.” If we so elect, we will be treated as having distributed any such retained amount for purposes of the 4% excise tax described above. We intend to make timely distributions sufficient to satisfy the annual distribution requirements.
It is possible that, from time to time, we may experience timing differences between (1) the actual receipt of income and actual payment of deductible expenses, and (2) the inclusion of that income and deduction of such expenses in arriving at our REIT taxable income. For example, under some of the percentage leases, the percentage rent is not due until after the end of the calendar quarter. In that case, we still would be required to recognize as income the excess of the percentage rent over the base rent paid by the lessee in the calendar quarter to which such excess relates. In addition, we may not deduct recognized net capital losses from our “REIT taxable income.” Further, it is possible that, from time to time, we may be allocated a share of gain attributable to the sale of depreciated property that exceeds our allocable share of cash attributable to that sale. Furthermore, generally for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, subject to certain exceptions, we must accrue income for U.S. federal income tax purposes no later than the time when such income is taken into account as revenue in our financial statements, which could create additional differences between REIT taxable income and the receipt of cash attributable to such income. As a result of the foregoing, we may have less cash than is necessary to distribute all of our taxable income and thereby avoid corporate income tax and the excise tax imposed on certain undistributed income. In such a situation, we may need to borrow funds or issue additional common or preferred shares.
We may satisfy the REIT annual distribution requirements by making taxable distributions of our stock. In accordance with guidance issued by the IRS, a publicly traded REIT should generally be eligible to treat a distribution of its own stock as fulfilling its REIT distribution requirements if each stockholder is permitted to elect to receive his or her distribution in either cash or stock of the REIT (even where there is a limitation on the percentage of the distribution payable in cash, provided that the limitation is at least 20% (10% for distributions declared on or after April 1, 2020, and on or before December 31, 2020, and for distributions declared on or after November 1, 2021, and on or before June 30, 2022)), subject to the satisfaction of certain guidelines. If too many stockholders elect to receive cash, each stockholder electing to receive cash generally must receive a portion of his or her distribution in cash (with the balance of the distribution paid in stock). If these and certain other requirements are met, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, the amount of the distribution paid in stock generally will be a taxable distribution in an amount equal to the amount of cash that could have been received instead of stock. As a result, a U.S. holder (as
 
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defined below) may be required to pay tax with respect to such dividends in excess of any cash received. With respect to non-U.S. holders (as defined below), we may be required to withhold U.S. tax with respect to such dividends, including in respect of all or a portion of such dividend that is payable in stock. We currently do not intend to pay taxable dividends payable in cash and stock.
For taxable years beginning on or before December 31, 2014, in order for distributions to be counted towards our distribution requirement and to give rise to a tax deduction by us, they must not be “preferential dividends.” A dividend is not a preferential dividend if it is pro rata among all outstanding shares of stock within a particular class and is in accordance with the preferences among different classes of stock as set forth in the organizational documents. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 2014, preferential dividends are generally not excluded from our distribution requirement.
Under certain circumstances, we may be able to correct a failure to meet the distribution requirement for a year by paying “deficiency dividends” to our stockholders in a later year. We may include such deficiency dividends in our deduction for dividends paid for the earlier year. Although we may be able to avoid income tax on amounts distributed as deficiency dividends, we will be required to pay interest to the IRS based upon the amount of any deduction we take for deficiency dividends.
Interest Deduction Limitation
Commencing in the taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, the deductibility of net interest expense paid or accrued on debt properly allocable to a trade or business is limited to 30% of “adjusted taxable income,” subject to certain exceptions. Any deduction in excess of the limitation is carried forward and may be used in a subsequent year, subject to the 30% limitation. However, for any taxable year beginning 2019 or 2020, the 30% limitation has been increased to a 50% limitation, provided that for partnerships the 50% limitation applies for any taxable year beginning in 2020 only. Taxpayers may elect to use their 2019 adjusted taxable income for purposes of computing their 2020 income limitation. Adjusted taxable income is determined without regard to certain deductions, including those for net interest expense, net operating loss carryforward and, for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2022, depreciation, amortization and depletion. Provided the taxpayer makes a timely election (which is irrevocable), the limitation does not apply to a trade or business involving real property development, redevelopment, construction, reconstruction, rental, operation, acquisition, conversion, disposition, management, leasing or brokerage, within the meaning of Section 469(c)(7)(C) of the Code. We have made this election and as a consequence, depreciable real property (including certain improvements) held by us must be depreciated under the alternative depreciation system under the Code, which is generally less favorable than the generally applicable system of depreciation under the Code. If the election is determined not to be available with respect to all or certain of our business activities, the new interest deduction limitation could result in us having more REIT taxable income and thus increase the amount of distributions we must make to comply with REIT requirements and avoid incurring corporate level tax. Similarly, the limitation could cause our TRSs to have greater taxable income and thus potentially greater corporate tax liability.
Recordkeeping Requirements
To avoid a monetary penalty, we must request on an annual basis information from our stockholders designed to disclose the actual ownership of our outstanding shares of stock. We intend to comply with such requirements.
Failure to Qualify
If we fail to satisfy one or more requirements for REIT qualification, other than the gross income tests and the asset tests, we could avoid disqualification if our failure is due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect and we pay a penalty of $50,000 for each such failure. In addition, there are relief provisions for a failure of the gross income tests and asset tests, as described in “— Income Tests” and “— Asset Tests.”
If we were to fail to qualify as a REIT in any taxable year, and no relief provision applied, we would be subject to U.S. federal income tax on our taxable income at regular corporate rates and any applicable alternative minimum tax (for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2018). In calculating our taxable income in a year in which we failed to qualify as a REIT, we would not be able to deduct amounts paid out to
 
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stockholders with respect to our stock. In fact, we would not be required to distribute any amounts to stockholders in such year. In such event, to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits, all distributions to stockholders would be taxable as regular corporate dividends. If we fail to qualify as a REIT, for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026, U.S. holders that are individuals, trusts or estates would not be able to deduct 20% fo the aggregate amount of ordinary dividends distributed by us, subject to certain limitations. Subject to certain limitations of the U.S. federal income tax laws, corporate stockholders might be eligible for the dividends received deduction and individual and certain non-corporate trust and estate stockholders may be eligible for a reduced maximum U.S. federal income tax rate of 20% on such dividends. Unless we qualified for relief under specific statutory provisions, we also would be disqualified from taxation as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year during which we ceased to qualify as a REIT. We cannot predict whether in all circumstances we would qualify for such statutory relief.
Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders
The term “U.S. holder” means a holder of our securities that for U.S. federal income tax purposes is a “U.S. person.” A U.S. person means:

a citizen or resident of the United States;

a corporation (including an entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes) created or organized in or under the laws of the United States, any of its states, or the District of Columbia;

an estate whose income is subject to U.S. federal income taxation regardless of its source; or

any trust if (1) a U.S. court is able to exercise primary supervision over the administration of such trust and one or more U.S. persons have the authority to control all substantial decisions of the trust or (2) it has a valid election in place to be treated as a U.S. person.
Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Stock
Distributions.   As long as we qualify as a REIT, (1) a taxable U.S. holder of our capital stock must report as ordinary income distributions that are made out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits and that we do not designate as capital gain dividends or retained long-term capital gain, and (2) a corporate U.S. holder of our capital stock will not qualify for the dividends received deduction generally available to corporations. In addition, dividends paid to an individual U.S. holder generally will not qualify for the reduced rate of U.S. federal income tax applicable to “qualified dividend income.” Qualified dividend income generally includes dividends from most U.S. corporations but does not generally include REIT dividends. As a result, our ordinary REIT dividends generally will continue to be taxed at the U.S. federal income tax rate applicable to ordinary income. However, for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2026, generally U.S. holders that are individuals, trusts or estates may deduct 20% of the aggregate amount of ordinary dividends distributed by us, subject to certain limitations. Notwithstanding the preceding, the U.S. federal income tax rate for qualified dividend income will apply to our ordinary REIT dividends, if any, that are (1) attributable to dividends received by us from non-REIT corporations, such as our TRSs, and (2) attributable to income upon which we have paid corporate U.S. federal income tax (e.g., to the extent that we distribute less than 100% of our REIT taxable income). In general, to qualify for the reduced U.S. federal income tax rate on qualified dividend income, a U.S. holder must hold our stock for more than 60 days during the 121-day period beginning on the date that is 60 days before the date on which our stock becomes ex-dividend.
A U.S. holder generally will report distributions that we designate as capital gain dividends as long-term capital gain without regard to the period for which the U.S. holder has held our stock. A corporate U.S. holder, however, may be required to treat up to 20% of certain capital gain dividends as ordinary income.
We may elect to retain and pay U.S. federal income tax on the net long-term capital gain that we receive in a taxable year. In that case, a U.S. holder would be taxed on its proportionate share of our undistributed long-term capital gain, to the extent that we designate such amount in a timely notice to such holder. The U.S. holder would be entitled to a credit or refund for its proportionate share of the U.S. federal income tax we
 
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paid. The U.S. holder would increase the basis in its stock by the amount of its proportionate share of our undistributed long-term capital gain, minus its share of the U.S. federal income tax we paid.
To the extent that we make a distribution in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits, such distribution will not be taxable to a U.S. holder to the extent that it does not exceed the adjusted tax basis of the U.S. holder’s stock. Instead, such distribution will reduce the adjusted tax basis of such stock. To the extent that we make a distribution in excess of both our current and accumulated earnings and profits and the U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in its stock, such U.S. holder will recognize long-term capital gain, or short-term capital gain if the stock has been held for one year or less. The IRS has ruled that if total distributions for two or more classes of stock are in excess of current and accumulated earnings and profits, dividends must be treated as having been distributed to those stockholders having a priority under the corporate charter before any distribution to stockholders with lesser priority. If we declare a dividend in October, November, or December of any year that is payable to a U.S. holder of record on a specified date in any such month, such dividend shall be treated as both paid by us and received by the U.S. holder on December 31 of such year, if we actually pay the dividend during January of the following calendar year.
U.S. holders may not include in their individual U.S. federal income tax returns any of our net operating losses or capital losses. Instead, we would carry over such losses for potential offset against our future income generally, provided that our deduction for any net operating loss carryforwards arising from losses we sustain in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 is limited to 80% of our REIT taxable income, temporarily suspended for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2021 under the CARES Act (determined without regard to the deduction for dividends paid). Taxable distributions from us and gain from the disposition of our stock will not be treated as passive activity income, and, therefore, U.S. holders generally will not be able to apply any “passive activity losses,” such as losses from certain types of limited partnerships in which the U.S. holder is a limited partner, against such income. In addition, taxable distributions from us and gain from the disposition of the stock generally will be treated as investment income for purposes of the investment interest limitations.
We will notify stockholders after the close of our taxable year as to the portions of the distributions attributable to that year that constitute ordinary income, return of capital, and capital gain.
Disposition of Stock.   In general, a U.S. holder who is not a dealer in securities must treat any gain or loss realized upon a taxable disposition of our capital stock as long-term capital gain or loss if the U.S. holder has held the stock for more than one year and otherwise as short-term capital gain or loss. However, a U.S. holder must treat any loss upon a sale or exchange of stock held by such U.S. holder for six months or less as a long-term capital loss to the extent of any actual or deemed distributions from us that such U.S. holder previously has characterized as long-term capital gain. All or a portion of any loss that a U.S. holder realizes upon a taxable disposition of the stock may be disallowed if the U.S. holder purchases the same type of stock within 30 days before or after the disposition.
Capital Gains and Losses.   A taxpayer generally must hold a capital asset for more than one year for gain or loss derived from its sale or exchange to be treated as long-term capital gain or loss. In general, a U.S. holder will realize gain or loss in an amount equal to the difference between the sum of the fair market value of any property and the amount of cash received in such disposition and the U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis. A U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis generally will equal the U.S. holder’s acquisition cost, increased by the excess of net capital gains deemed distributed to the U.S. holder (discussed above) less tax deemed paid on such gains and reduced by any returns of capital. In general, the maximum U.S. federal income tax rate on long-term capital gain applicable to non-corporate taxpayers is 20% for sales and exchanges of assets held for more than one year. The maximum U.S. federal income tax rate on long-term capital gain from the sale or exchange of “section 1250 property,” or depreciable real property, is 25% to the extent that such gain, not otherwise treated as ordinary, would have been treated as ordinary income if the property were “section 1245 property.” With respect to distributions that we designate as capital gain dividends and any retained capital gain that we are deemed to distribute, we generally may designate whether such a distribution is taxable to our non-corporate stockholders at a 20% or 25% U.S. federal income tax rate. In addition, the characterization of income as capital gain or ordinary income may affect the deductibility of capital losses. A non-corporate taxpayer may deduct capital losses not offset by capital gains against its ordinary income only up to a maximum annual amount of $3,000. A non-corporate taxpayer may carry forward unused capital losses indefinitely. A corporate taxpayer must pay U.S. federal income tax on its net capital gain at ordinary
 
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corporate U.S. federal income tax rates. A corporate taxpayer may deduct capital losses only to the extent of capital gains, with unused losses being carried back three years and forward five years.
Medicare Tax.   A U.S. holder that is an individual or estate, or a trust that does not fall into a special class of trusts that is exempt from such tax, will be subject to a 3.8% tax on the lesser of (1) the U.S. holder’s “net investment income” for the relevant taxable year and (2) the excess of the U.S. holder’s modified adjusted gross income for the taxable year over a certain threshold (which in the case of individuals will be between $125,000 and $250,000 depending on the individual’s circumstances). Net investment income generally includes dividend income and net gains from the disposition of stock, unless such dividend income or net gains are derived in the ordinary course of the conduct of a trade or business (other than a trade or business that consists of certain passive or trading activities). With respect to ordinary REIT dividends received by non-corporate taxpayers, the temporary 20% deduction described above in “— Distributions.” is allowed only for regular income tax purposes and thus is apparently not allowed as a deduction allocable to such dividends for purposes of determining the amount of net investment income subject to the 3.8% Medicare tax. A U.S. holder that is an individual, estate or trust, should consult its tax advisor regarding the applicability of the Medicare tax to its income and gains in respect of its investment in our capital stock.
Information Reporting Requirements and Backup Withholding.   We will report to our stockholders and to the IRS the amount of distributions we pay during each calendar year and the amount of tax we withhold, if any. Under the backup withholding rules, a U.S. holder may be subject to backup withholding at the rate of 24% with respect to distributions unless such holder:

comes within certain exempt categories and, when required, demonstrates this fact; or

provides to the applicable withholding agent a taxpayer identification number, certifies as to no loss of exemption from backup withholding, and otherwise complies with the applicable requirements of the backup withholding rules.
A U.S. holder who does not provide the applicable withholding agent with its correct taxpayer identification number also may be subject to penalties imposed by the IRS. Any amount paid as backup withholding will be creditable against the U.S. holder’s income tax liability. In addition, we may be required to withhold a portion of capital gain distributions to any U.S. holders who fail to certify their non-foreign status to us. See “— Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Stock.”
Taxation of Tax-Exempt Stockholders
Tax-exempt entities, including qualified employee pension and profit sharing trusts and individual retirement accounts, generally are exempt from U.S. federal income taxation. However, they are subject to taxation on their unrelated business taxable income. While many investments in real estate generate unrelated business taxable income, the IRS has issued a published ruling that dividend distributions from a REIT to an exempt employee pension trust do not constitute unrelated business taxable income, provided that the exempt employee pension trust does not otherwise use the shares of the REIT in an unrelated trade or business of the pension trust. Based on that ruling, amounts that we distribute to tax-exempt stockholders generally should not constitute unrelated business taxable income. However, if a tax-exempt stockholder were to finance its acquisition of our stock with debt, a portion of the income that it receives from us would constitute unrelated business taxable income pursuant to the “debt-financed property” rules. Furthermore, certain entities that are exempt from taxation under special provisions of the U.S. federal income tax laws are subject to different unrelated business taxable income rules, which generally will require them to characterize distributions that they receive from us as unrelated business taxable income. Finally, if we are a “pension-held REIT,” a qualified employee pension or profit sharing trust that owns more than 10% of our shares of stock is required to treat a percentage of the dividends that it receives from us as unrelated business taxable income. That percentage is equal to the gross income that we derive from an unrelated trade or business, determined as if we were a pension trust, divided by our total gross income for the year in which we pay the dividends. That rule applies to a pension trust holding more than 10% of our shares of stock only if:

the percentage of our dividends that the tax-exempt trust would be required to treat as unrelated business taxable income is at least 5%;

we qualify as a REIT by reason of the modification of the rule requiring that no more than 50% of our stock be owned by five or fewer individuals that allows the beneficiaries of the pension trust to be
 
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treated as holding our stock in proportion to their actuarial interests in the pension trust (see “— Taxation of Our Company — Requirements for REIT Qualification”); and

either (1) one pension trust owns more than 25% of the value of our stock or (2) a group of pension trusts individually holding more than 10% of the value of our stock collectively owns more than 50% of the value of our stock.
Although there can be no assurance that we will not become one in the future, we do not believe that our Company is currently a pension-held REIT.
Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders
The rules governing federal income taxation of non-U.S. holders of our securities are complex. A “non-U.S. holder” means a holder that is not a U.S. holder, as defined above, and is not an entity treated as a partnership for federal income tax purposes. This section is only a summary of such rules as they apply to non-U.S. holders of our stock; a summary of such rules as they apply to non-U.S. holders of our debt securities is discussed below under “ — Holders of our Debt Securities.” We urge non-U.S. holders to consult their tax advisors to determine the impact of federal, state, and local income tax laws on ownership of our capital stock, including any reporting requirements.
Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Stock
Distributions.   The portion of a distribution that is received by a non-U.S. holder that we do not designate as a capital gain dividend and that is payable out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits, as well as any other payment that is treated as a dividend as described above under “Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Stock,” will be subject to U.S. income tax withholding at the rate of 30% on the gross amount of any such distribution paid unless either:

a lower treaty rate applies and the non-U.S. holder furnishes an IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E evidencing eligibility for that reduced rate to the applicable withholding agent; or

the non-U.S. holder furnishes an IRS Form W-8ECI to the applicable withholding agent claiming that the distribution is effectively connected income.
If a distribution is treated as effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s conduct of a U.S. trade or business, the non-U.S. holder generally will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the distribution at graduated rates, in the same manner as U.S. holders are taxed with respect to such distributions. A non-U.S. holder that is a corporation also may be subject to the 30% branch profits tax with respect to a distribution treated as effectively connected with its conduct of a U.S. trade or business, unless reduced or eliminated by a tax treaty.
Except as described in the following paragraph, a non-U.S. holder will not incur tax on a distribution in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits if the excess portion of such distribution does not exceed the adjusted basis of its stock. Instead, the excess portion of such distribution will reduce the adjusted basis of such stock. A non-U.S. holder will be subject to tax on a distribution that exceeds both our current and accumulated earnings and profits and the adjusted basis of its stock, if the non-U.S. holder otherwise would be subject to tax on gain from the sale or disposition of its stock, as described below. If we cannot determine at the time we make a distribution whether or not the distribution will exceed our current and accumulated earnings and profits, we will treat the entire amount of any distribution as a taxable dividend. However, a non-U.S. holder may obtain a refund of amounts that we withhold if we later determine that a distribution in fact exceeded our current and accumulated earnings and profits.
If our stock constitutes a United States real property interest, as defined below, unless (1) we are a “domestically-controlled qualified investment entity,” as defined below, (2) the distribution is with respect to a class of our stock regularly traded on an established securities market located in the United States and is made to a non-U.S. holder that did not own more than 10% of such class of capital stock at any time during the one-year period ending on the date of distribution or (3) the distribution is with respect to stock held by a “qualified shareholder,” including stock held indirectly through one or more partnerships (to the extent not held by an “applicable investor”), the distribution will give rise to gain from the sale or exchange of
 
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such stock, the tax treatment of which is described below and, we must withhold 15% of any distribution that exceeds our current and accumulated earnings and profits. A “qualified shareholder” is generally defined as a foreign person that (i) is eligible for benefits of an income tax treaty with the United States and the principal class of interests of which is listed and regularly traded on one or more recognized stock exchanges, or is a foreign partnership that is created or organized under foreign law as a limited partnership in a jurisdiction that has an agreement for the exchange of information with respect to taxes with the United States and has a class of limited partnership units which is regularly traded on the New York Stock Exchange or Nasdaq Stock Market and such class of limited partnership units’ value is greater than 50% of the value of all the partnership units; (ii) is a “qualified collective investment vehicle,” and (iii) maintains records on the identity of each person who, at any time during the foreign person’s taxable year, holds directly 5% or more of the class of interest described in clause (i) above. The benefits of the qualified shareholder exception do not apply to the extent of the ownership in that shareholder of an “applicable investor,” generally defined as a more than 10% owner of the REIT on a look-through basis, taking into account all interests held by such applicable investor in the REIT. Any distribution to a qualified shareholder shall not be treated as an effectively connected income distribution to the extent that stock held by such qualified shareholder is not treated as a United States real property interest as provided in an exception described in this section. Consequently, although we intend to withhold at a rate of 30% on the entire amount of any distribution, to the extent that we do not do so, we may withhold at a rate of 15% on any portion of a distribution not subject to withholding at a rate of 30%.
For any year in which we qualify as a REIT, a non-U.S. holder (other than certain qualified foreign pension funds) may incur tax on distributions that are attributable (or deemed so attributable pursuant to applicable Treasury regulations) to gain from our sale or exchange of “United States real property interests” under special provisions of the U.S. federal income tax laws referred to as “FIRPTA.” The term “United States real property interests” includes certain interests in real property and stock in corporations at least 50% of whose assets consists of interests in real property. Under those rules, a non-U.S. holder is generally taxed on distributions attributable (or deemed attributable) to gain from sales of United States real property interests as if such gain were effectively connected with a United States business of the non-U.S. holder. A non-U.S. holder thus would be taxed on such a distribution at the normal rates, including applicable capital gains rates, applicable to U.S. holders, subject to applicable alternative minimum tax and a special alternative minimum tax in the case of a nonresident alien individual. A non-U.S. corporate holder not entitled to treaty relief or exemption also may be subject to the 30% branch profits tax on such a distribution. Except as described below with respect to regularly traded stock, we must withhold 21% of any distribution that we could designate as a capital gain dividend. A non-U.S. holder may receive a credit against its tax liability for the amount we withhold. Any distribution with respect to any class of stock which is regularly traded on an established securities market located in the United States, will not be treated as gain recognized from the sale or exchange of a United States real property interest if the non-U.S. holder did not own more than 10% of such class of stock at any time during the one-year period preceding the date of the distribution. As a result, non-U.S. holders generally will be subject to withholding tax on such capital gain distributions in the same manner as they are subject to withholding tax on ordinary dividends. We anticipate that each class of our capital stock will be regularly traded on an established securities market in the United States following this offering. If a class of our capital stock is not regularly traded on an established securities market in the United States or the non-U.S. holder owned more than 10% of such class of stock at any time during the one-year period preceding the date of the distribution, capital gain distributions with respect to that class of capital that are attributable to our sale of real property would be subject to tax under FIRPTA, as described above unless otherwise excepted. Moreover, if a non-U.S. holder owning more than 5% of a class of our capital stock disposes of such stock during the 30-day period preceding the ex-dividend date of a dividend, and such non-U.S. holder (or a person related to such non-U.S. holder) acquires or enters into a contract or option to acquire our capital stock within 61 days of the first day of the 30-day period described above, and any portion of such dividend payment would, but for the disposition, be treated as a United States real property interest capital gain to such non-U.S. holder, then such non-U.S. holder will be treated as having United States real property interest capital gain in an amount that, but for the disposition, would have been treated as United States real property interest capital gain.
Any distribution that is made by a REIT that would otherwise be subject to FIRPTA because the distribution is attributable to the disposition of a United States real property interest will retain its character
 
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as FIRPTA income when distributed to any regulated investment company or other REIT, and will be treated as if it were from the disposition of a United States real property interest by that regulated investment company or other REIT.
Disposition of Stock.   Except as discussed below, gain on a sale of our capital stock by a non-U.S. holder generally will not be subject to U.S. taxation.
Subject to the exceptions described in this section, non-U.S. holders (other than certain qualified foreign pension funds) could incur tax under FIRPTA with respect to gain realized upon a disposition of shares of a class of our capital stock if shares of such class of our capital stock are United States real property interests. Generally, shares of a United States real property holding corporation are United States real property interests. If at least 50% of a REIT’s assets are United States real property interests, then the REIT will be a United States real property holding corporation. We anticipate that we will be a United States real property holding corporation based on our investment strategy. However, even if we are a United States real property holding corporation, shares of our capital stock will not be treated as United States real property interests and a non-U.S. holder generally will not incur tax under FIRPTA with respect to gain realized upon a disposition of shares of our capital stock as long as we are a “domestically-controlled qualified investment entity.” A domestically-controlled qualified investment entity includes a REIT in which, at all times during a specified testing period, less than 50% in value of its shares are held directly or indirectly by non-U.S. holders. We cannot assure you that that test will be met. However, even if we are not a domestically controlled qualified investment entity, shares of our capital stock will not be treated as United States real property interests and a non-U.S. holder generally will not incur tax under FIRPTA with respect to gain realized upon a disposition of shares of our capital stock, if such non-U.S. holder owned, actually or constructively, 10% or less of a class of our capital stock, at all times during a specified testing period if the class of capital stock is “regularly traded” on an established securities market, or, if such non-U.S. holder is a “qualified shareholder” ​(to the extent not allocable to an applicable investor). If the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our capital stock were subject to taxation under FIRPTA, and if shares of the applicable class of our capital stock were not “regularly traded” on an established securities market, the purchaser of such capital stock would be required to withhold and remit to the IRS 15% of the purchase price. If the gain on the sale of the capital stock were taxed under FIRPTA, a non-U.S. holder would be taxed in the same manner as U.S. holders with respect to such gain, subject to applicable alternative minimum tax and a special alternative minimum tax in the case of nonresident alien individuals. Furthermore, a non-U.S. holder generally will incur tax on gain not subject to FIRPTA if (1) the gain is effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s U.S. trade or business, in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to the same treatment as U.S. holders with respect to such gain, or (2) the non-U.S. holder is a nonresident alien individual who was present in the U.S. for 183 days or more during the taxable year and has a “tax home” in the United States, in which case the non-U.S. holder will incur a 30% tax on his capital gains.
If we are a domestically controlled qualified investment entity and a non-U.S. holder disposes of our capital stock during the 30-day period preceding a dividend payment, and such non-U.S. holder (or a person related to such non-U.S. holder) acquires or enters into a contract or option to acquire our capital stock within 61 days of the first day of the 30-day period described above, and any portion of such dividend payment would, but for the disposition, be treated as a United States real property interest capital gain to such non-U.S. holder, then such non-U.S. holder shall be treated as having United States real property interest capital gain in an amount that, but for the disposition, would have been treated as United States real property interest capital gain.
Information Reporting Requirements and Backup Withholding.   Generally, information reporting will apply to payments of distributions on our stock, and backup withholding may apply at a rate of 24%, unless the payee certifies that it is not a U.S. person or otherwise establishes an exemption.
The payment of the proceeds from the disposition of our stock to or through the U.S. office of a U.S. or foreign broker will be subject to information reporting and, possibly, backup withholding unless the non-U.S. holder certifies as to its non-U.S. status or otherwise establishes an exemption, provided that the broker does not have actual knowledge that the non-U.S. holder is a U.S. person or that the conditions of any other exemption are not, in fact, satisfied. The proceeds of the disposition by a non-U.S. holder of our stock to or through a foreign office of a broker generally will not be subject to information reporting or backup withholding. However, if the broker is a U.S. person, a controlled foreign corporation for U.S. federal
 
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income tax purposes or a foreign person 50% or more of whose gross income from all sources for specified periods is from activities that are effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business, information reporting generally will apply unless the broker has documentary evidence as to the non-U.S. holder’s foreign status and has no actual knowledge to the contrary. Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amount withheld under the backup withholding rules from a payment to a non-U.S. holder will be allowed as a credit against such non-U.S. holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability (which might entitle such non-U.S. holder to a refund), provided that the required information is timely furnished to the IRS.
Applicable Treasury Regulations provide presumptions regarding the status of stockholders when payments to the stockholders cannot be reliably associated with appropriate documentation provided to the payer. Because the application of these Treasury Regulations varies depending on the stockholder’s particular circumstances, you are urged to consult your tax advisor regarding the information reporting requirements applicable to you. Copies of information returns that are filed with the IRS may also be made available under the provisions of an applicable treaty or agreement to the tax authorities of the country in which the non-U.S. holder resides or is established.
Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act Withholding
Pursuant to the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act, or FATCA, foreign financial institutions (which include most foreign hedge funds, private equity funds, mutual funds, securitization vehicles and any other investment vehicles) and certain other foreign entities must comply with registration and information reporting rules with respect to their U.S. account holders and investors or be subject to a withholding tax on U.S.-source payments made to them (whether received as a beneficial owner or as an intermediary for another party). A foreign financial institution or other foreign entity that does not comply with the FATCA registration and reporting requirements will generally be subject to a new 30% withholding tax on “withholdable payments.” For this purpose, withholdable payments generally include U.S.-source payments (including U.S.-source dividends), and (subject to the proposed Treasury Regulations below) the gross proceeds from a sale of equity or debt instruments of issuers who are considered U.S. issuers under the FATCA rules. The FATCA withholding tax applies even if the payment would otherwise not be subject to U.S. nonresident withholding tax (e.g., because it is capital gain). While withholding under FATCA would have applied also to payments of gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of stock on or after January 1, 2019, proposed Treasury Regulations eliminate FATCA withholding on payments of gross proceeds entirely. Taxpayers may generally rely on these proposed Treasury Regulations until final Treasury Regulations are issued. Foreign financial institutions located in jurisdictions that have an intergovernmental agreement with the United States governing FATCA may be subject to different rules. We will not pay additional amounts in respect of amounts withheld. Investors should consult their tax advisors regarding FATCA.
Tax Aspects of Our Investments in the Partnerships
The following discussion summarizes certain U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to our direct or indirect investments in the Partnerships. The discussion does not cover state or local tax laws or any federal tax laws other than income tax laws.
We are entitled to include in our income our distributive share of each Partnership’s income and to deduct our distributive share of each Partnership’s losses only if such Partnership is classified for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a partnership (or an entity that is disregarded for U.S. federal income tax purposes if the entity has only one owner or member), rather than as a corporation or an association taxable as a corporation. An organization with at least two owners or members will be classified as a partnership, rather than as a corporation, for U.S. federal income tax purposes if it:

is treated as a partnership under Treasury regulations relating to entity classification (the “check-the-box regulations”); and

is not a “publicly-traded” partnership.
Under the check-the-box regulations, an unincorporated entity with at least two owners or members may elect to be classified either as an association taxable as a corporation or as a partnership. If such an entity fails to make an election, it generally will be treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax
 
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purposes. Each Partnership intends to be classified as a partnership (or an entity that is disregarded for U.S. federal income tax purposes if the entity has only one owner or member) for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and no Partnership will elect to be treated as an association taxable as a corporation under the check-the-box regulations.
A publicly-traded partnership is a partnership whose interests are traded on an established securities market or are readily tradable on a secondary market or the substantial equivalent thereof. A publicly-traded partnership will not, however, be treated as a corporation for any taxable year if 90% or more of the partnership’s gross income for such year consists of certain passive-type income, including real property rents (which includes rents that would be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, with certain modifications that make it easier for the rents to qualify for the 90% passive income exception), gains from the sale or other disposition of real property, interest, and dividends (the “90% passive income exception”).
Treasury regulations (the “PTP regulations”) provide limited safe harbors from the definition of a publicly-traded partnership. Pursuant to one of those safe harbors (the “private placement exclusion”), interests in a partnership will not be treated as readily tradable on a secondary market or the substantial equivalent thereof if (1) all interests in the partnership were issued in a transaction or transactions that were not required to be registered under the Securities Act, and (2) the partnership does not have more than 100 partners at any time during the partnership’s taxable year. In determining the number of partners in a partnership, a person owning an interest in a partnership, grantor trust, or S corporation that owns an interest in the partnership is treated as a partner in such partnership only if (1) substantially all of the value of the owner’s interest in the entity is attributable to the entity’s direct or indirect interest in the partnership and (2) a principal purpose of the use of the entity is to permit the partnership to satisfy the 100-partner limitation. We anticipate that each Partnership will qualify for the private placement exclusion.
We have not requested, and do not intend to request, a ruling from the IRS that the Partnerships will be classified as partnerships (or disregarded entities, if the entity has only one owner or member) for U.S. federal income tax purposes. If for any reason a Partnership were taxable as a corporation, rather than as a partnership or a disregarded entity, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, we likely would not be able to qualify as a REIT. See “— Taxation of Our Company — Income Tests” and “— Asset Tests.” In addition, any change in a Partnership’s status for tax purposes might be treated as a taxable event, in which case we might incur tax liability without any related cash distribution. See “— Taxation of Our Company — Distribution Requirements.” Further, items of income and deduction of such Partnership would not pass through to its partners, and its partners would be treated as stockholders for tax purposes. Consequently, such Partnership would be required to pay income tax at corporate rates on its net income, and distributions to its partners would not be deductible in computing such Partnership’s taxable income.
Income Taxation of the Partnerships and Their Partners
Partners, Not the Partnerships, Subject to Tax.   A partnership is not a taxable entity for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Rather, we are required to take into account our allocable share of each Partnership’s income, gains, losses, deductions, and credits for any taxable year of such Partnership ending within or with our taxable year, without regard to whether we have received or will receive any distribution from such Partnership. Under new audit rules that became effective for tax years beginning in 2018, unless a partnership elects otherwise, taxes arising from audit adjustments are required to be paid by the entity rather than by its partners or members. We will have the authority to utilize, and intend to utilize, any exceptions available under such audit rules (including any changes) and Treasury Regulations so that the partners, to the fullest extent possible, rather than the partnership itself, will be liable for any taxes arising from audit adjustments to the issuing entity’s taxable income. Prospective investors are urged to consult with their tax advisors regarding the possible effect of the new rules.
Partnership Allocations.   Although a partnership agreement generally will determine the allocation of income, gains, losses, deductions, and credits among partners, such allocations will be disregarded for U.S. federal income tax purposes if they do not comply with the provisions of the U.S. federal income tax laws governing partnership allocations. If an allocation is not recognized for U.S. federal income tax purposes, the item subject to the allocation will be reallocated in accordance with the partners’ interests in the partnership, which will be determined by taking into account all of the facts and circumstances relating to
 
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the economic arrangement of the partners with respect to such item. Each Partnership’s allocations of taxable income, gains, losses, deductions, and credits are intended to comply with the requirements of the U.S. federal income tax laws governing partnership allocations.
Tax Allocations With Respect to Partnership Properties.   Income, gain, loss, and deduction attributable to appreciated or depreciated property that is contributed to a partnership in exchange for an interest in the partnership must be allocated in a manner such that the contributing partner is charged with, or benefits from, respectively, the unrealized gain or unrealized loss associated with the property at the time of the contribution (the “704(c) Allocations”). The amount of the unrealized gain or unrealized loss (“built-in gain” or “built-in loss”) is generally equal to the difference between the fair market value of the contributed property at the time of contribution and the adjusted tax basis of such property at the time of contribution (a “book-tax difference”). Any property purchased for cash initially will have an adjusted tax basis equal to its fair market value, resulting in no book-tax difference. A book-tax difference generally is decreased on an annual basis as a result of depreciation deductions to the contributing partner for book purposes but not for tax purposes. The 704(c) Allocations are solely for U.S. federal income tax purposes and do not affect the book capital accounts or other economic or legal arrangements among the partners.
The U.S. Treasury Department has issued regulations requiring partnerships to use a “reasonable method” for allocating items with respect to which there is a book-tax difference and outlining several reasonable allocation methods. Under our operating partnership’s partnership agreement, depreciation or amortization deductions of the operating partnership generally will be allocated among the partners in accordance with their respective interests in the operating partnership, except to the extent that the operating partnership is required under the U.S. federal income tax laws governing partnership allocations to use a method for allocating tax depreciation deductions attributable to contributed properties that results in our receiving a disproportionate share of such deductions. In addition, gain or loss on the sale of a property that has been contributed, in whole or in part, to the operating partnership will be specially allocated to the contributing partners to the extent of any built-in gain or loss with respect to such property for U.S. federal income tax purposes.
Basis in Partnership Interest.   Our adjusted tax basis in our partnership interest in the operating partnership generally is equal to:

the amount of cash and the basis of any other property contributed by us to the operating partnership;

increased by our allocable share of the operating partnership’s income and gains and our allocable share of indebtedness of the operating partnership; and

reduced, but not below zero, by our allocable share of the operating partnership’s losses, deductions and credits and the amount of cash distributed to us, and by constructive distributions resulting from a reduction in our share of indebtedness of the operating partnership.
If the allocation of our distributive share of the operating partnership’s loss would reduce the adjusted tax basis of our partnership interest in the operating partnership below zero, the recognition of such loss will be deferred until such time as the recognition of such loss would not reduce our adjusted tax basis below zero. To the extent that the operating partnership’s distributions, or any decrease in our share of the indebtedness of the operating partnership, which is considered a constructive cash distribution to the partners, reduce our adjusted tax basis below zero, such distributions will constitute taxable income to us. Such distributions and constructive distributions normally will be characterized as long-term capital gain.
Depreciation Deductions Available to our Operating Partnership.   To the extent that our operating partnership acquires its hotels in exchange for cash, its initial basis in such hotels for U.S. federal income tax purposes generally was or will be equal to the purchase price paid by our operating partnership. Our operating partnership’s initial basis in hotels acquired in exchange for units in our operating partnership should be the same as the transferor’s basis in such hotels on the date of acquisition by our operating partnership. Although the law is not entirely clear, our operating partnership generally will depreciate such depreciable hotel property for U.S. federal income tax purposes over the same remaining useful lives and under the same methods used by the transferors. Our operating partnership’s tax depreciation deductions will be allocated among the partners in accordance with their respective interests in our operating partnership, except to the extent that our operating partnership is required under the U.S. federal income tax laws
 
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governing partnership allocations to use a method for allocating tax depreciation deductions attributable to contributed properties that results in our receiving a disproportionate share of such deductions.
Sale of a Partnership’s Property
Generally, any gain realized by us or a Partnership on the sale of property held for more than one year will be long-term capital gain, except for any portion of such gain that is treated as depreciation or cost recovery recapture. Any gain or loss recognized by a Partnership on the disposition of contributed properties will be allocated first to the partners who contributed such properties to the extent of their built-in gain or loss on those properties for U.S. federal income tax purposes. The partners’ built-in gain or loss on such contributed properties will equal the difference between the partners’ proportionate share of the book value of those properties and the partners’ tax basis allocable to those properties at the time of the contribution. Any remaining gain or loss recognized by the Partnership on the disposition of the contributed properties, and any gain or loss recognized by the Partnership on the disposition of the other properties, will be allocated among the partners in accordance with their respective percentage interests in the Partnership.
Our share of any gain realized by a Partnership on the sale of any property held by the Partnership as inventory or other property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of the Partnership’s trade or business will be treated as income from a prohibited transaction that is subject to a 100% penalty tax. Such prohibited transaction income also may have an adverse effect upon our ability to satisfy the income tests for REIT status. See “— Taxation of Our Company — Income Tests.” We, however, do not presently intend to acquire or hold or to allow any Partnership to acquire or hold any property that represents inventory or other property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of our or such Partnership’s trade or business.
Redemption and Conversion of Preferred Stock
Cash Redemption of Preferred Stock.   A redemption of preferred stock will be treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a distribution taxable as a dividend (to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits), unless the redemption satisfies one of the tests set forth in Section 302(b) of the Code and is therefore treated as a sale or exchange of the redeemed shares. Such a redemption will be treated as a sale or exchange if it (i) is “substantially disproportionate” with respect to the holder (which will not be the case if only non-voting preferred stock is redeemed), (ii) results in a “complete termination” of the holder’s equity interest in us, or (iii) is “not essentially equivalent to a dividend” with respect to the holder, all within the meaning of Section 302(b) of the Code.
In determining whether any of these tests has been met, shares of our common stock and preferred stock considered to be owned by the holder by reason of certain constructive ownership rules set forth in the Code, as well as shares of our common stock and preferred stock actually owned by the holder, must generally be taken into account. If a holder of preferred stock owns (actually and constructively) no shares of our outstanding common stock or an insubstantial percentage thereof, a redemption of shares of preferred stock of that holder is likely to qualify for sale or exchange treatment because the redemption would be “not essentially equivalent to a dividend.” However, the determination as to whether any of the alternative tests of Section 302(b) of the Code will be satisfied with respect to any particular holder of preferred stock depends upon the facts and circumstances at the time the determination must be made. We urge prospective holders of preferred stock to consult their own tax advisors to determine such tax treatment.
If a redemption of preferred stock is not treated as a distribution taxable as a dividend to a particular holder, it will be treated as a taxable sale or exchange by that holder. As a result, the holder will recognize gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes in an amount equal to the difference between (i) the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received (less any portion thereof attributable to accumulated and declared but unpaid dividends, which will be taxable as a dividend to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits) and (ii) the holder’s adjusted tax basis in the shares of the preferred stock. Such gain or loss will be capital gain or loss if the shares of preferred stock were held as a capital asset, and will be long-term gain or loss if such shares were held for more than one year. If a redemption of preferred stock is treated as a distribution taxable as a dividend, the amount of the distribution will be measured by the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received by the holder, and the holder’s adjusted tax basis in the redeemed shares of the preferred stock will be transferred to the holder’s
 
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remaining shares of our stock. If the holder owns no other shares of our stock, such basis may, under certain circumstances, be transferred to a related person or it may be lost entirely.
Conversion of Preferred Stock into Common Stock.   In general, no gain or loss will be recognized for U.S. federal income tax purposes upon conversion of the preferred stock solely into shares of common stock. The basis that a stockholder will have for U.S. federal income tax purposes in the shares of common stock received upon conversion will be equal to the adjusted basis for the stockholder in the shares of preferred stock so converted, and provided that the shares of preferred stock were held as a capital asset, the holding period for the shares of common stock received would include the holding period for the shares of preferred stock converted. A stockholder will, however, generally recognize gain or loss on the receipt of cash in lieu of fractional shares of common stock in an amount equal to the difference between the amount of cash received and the stockholder’s adjusted basis for U.S. federal income tax purposes in the preferred stock for which cash was received. Furthermore, under certain circumstances, a stockholder of shares of preferred stock may recognize gain or dividend income to the extent that there are accumulated and unpaid dividends on the shares at the time of conversion into common stock.
Adjustments to Conversion Price.   Adjustments in the conversion price, or the failure to make such adjustments, pursuant to the anti-dilution provisions of the preferred stock or otherwise, may result in constructive distributions to the stockholders of preferred stock that could, under certain circumstances, be taxable to them as dividends pursuant to Section 305 of the Code. If such a constructive distribution were to occur, a stockholder of preferred stock could be required to recognize ordinary income for U.S. federal income tax purposes without receiving a corresponding distribution of cash. Under proposed regulations, such constructive distributions, if any, would generally be deemed to occur on the date adjustments to the conversion price are made in accordance with the terms of the relevant series of preferred stock.
Warrants
Upon the exercise of a warrant for common stock, a holder will not recognize gain or loss and will have a tax basis in the common stock received equal to the adjusted tax basis in such stockholder’s warrant plus the exercise price of the warrant. The holding period for the common stock purchased pursuant to the exercise of a warrant will begin on the day following the date of exercise and will not include the period that the stockholder held the warrant.
Upon a sale or other disposition of a warrant, a holder will recognize capital gain or loss in an amount equal to the difference between the amount realized and the holder’s adjusted tax basis in the warrant. Such a gain or loss will be long term if the holding period is more than one year. In the event that a warrant lapses unexercised, a holder will recognize a capital loss in an amount equal to his adjusted tax basis in the warrant. Such loss will be long term if the warrant has been held for more than one year.
Holders of Debt Securities
U.S. Holders
Payments of Interest.   In general, except as described below under “— Original Issue Discount,” interest on debt securities will be taxable to a U.S. holder as ordinary income at the time it accrues or is received, in accordance with the U.S. holder’s regular method of accounting for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In general, if the terms of a debt instrument entitle a holder to receive payments other than “qualified stated interest” ​(generally, stated interest that is unconditionally payable in cash or in property (other than debt instruments of the issuer) at least annually at a single fixed or qualifying floating rate), such holder might be required to recognize additional interest as “original issue discount” over the term of the instrument.
Original Issue Discount.   If you own debt securities issued with original issue discount (“OID”), you will be subject to special tax accounting rules, as described in greater detail below. In that case, you should be aware that you generally must include OID in gross income in advance of the receipt of cash attributable to that income. However, you generally will not be required to include separately in income cash payments received on the debt securities, even if denominated as interest, to the extent those payments do not constitute “qualified stated interest,” as defined below. If we determine that a particular debt security will be issued
 
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with OID (an “OID debt security”), we will disclose that determination in the prospectus supplement or supplements relating to those debt securities.
A debt security with an “issue price” that is less than the “stated redemption price at maturity” ​(the sum of all payments to be made on the debt security other than “qualified stated interest”) generally will be issued with OID if that difference is at least 0.25% of the stated redemption price at maturity multiplied by the number of complete years to maturity. The “issue price” of each debt security in a particular offering will be the first price at which a substantial amount of that particular offering is sold to the public. The term “qualified stated interest” means stated interest that is unconditionally payable in cash or in property, other than debt instruments of the issuer, and the interest to be paid meets all of the following conditions:

it is payable at least once per year;

it is payable over the entire term of the debt security; and

it is payable at a single fixed rate or, subject to certain conditions, based on one or more interest indices.
If we determine that particular debt securities of a series will bear interest that is not qualified stated interest, we will disclose that determination in the prospectus supplement or supplements relating to those debt securities.
If you own a debt security issued with “de minimis” OID, which is discount that is not OID because it is less than 0.25% of the stated redemption price at maturity multiplied by the number of complete years to maturity, you generally must include the de minimis OID in income at the time principal payments on the debt securities are made in proportion to the amount paid. Any amount of de minimis OID that you have included in income will be treated as capital gain.
Certain of the debt securities may contain provisions permitting them to be redeemed prior to their stated maturity at our option and/or at your option. OID debt securities containing those features may be subject to rules that differ from the general rules discussed herein. If you are considering the purchase of OID debt securities with those features, you should carefully examine the applicable prospectus supplement or supplements and should consult your own tax advisors with respect to those features since the tax consequences to you with respect to OID will depend, in part, on the particular terms and features of the debt securities.
If you own OID debt securities with a maturity upon issuance of more than one year you generally must include OID in income in advance of the receipt of some or all of the related cash payments using the “constant yield method” described in the following paragraphs. This method takes into account the compounding of interest.
The amount of OID that you must include in income if you are the initial U.S. holder of an OID debt security is the sum of the “daily portions” of OID with respect to the debt security for each day during the taxable year or portion of the taxable year in which you held that debt security (“accrued OID”). The daily portion is determined by allocating to each day in any “accrual period” a pro rata portion of the OID allocable to that accrual period. The “accrual period” for an OID debt security may be of any length and may vary in length over the term of the debt security, provided that each accrual period is no longer than one year and each scheduled payment of principal or interest occurs on the first day or the final day of an accrual period. The amount of OID allocable to any accrual period other than the final accrual period is an amount equal to the excess, if any, of:

the debt security’s “adjusted issue price” at the beginning of the accrual period multiplied by its yield to maturity, determined on the basis of compounding at the close of each accrual period and properly adjusted for the length of the accrual period, over

the aggregate of all qualified stated interest allocable to the accrual period.
OID allocable to a final accrual period is the difference between the amount payable at maturity, other than a payment of qualified stated interest, and the adjusted issue price at the beginning of the final accrual period. Special rules will apply for calculating OID for an initial short accrual period. The “adjusted issue price” of a debt security at the beginning of any accrual period is equal to its issue price increased by the
 
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accrued OID for each prior accrual period, determined without regard to the amortization of any acquisition or bond premium, as described below, and reduced by any payments previously made on the debt security (other than a payment of qualified stated interest). Under these rules, you will generally have to include in income increasingly greater amounts of OID in successive accrual periods. We are required to provide information returns stating the amount of OID accrued on debt securities held by persons of record other than corporations and other exempt holders.
Floating rate debt securities are subject to special OID rules. In the case of an OID debt security that is a floating rate debt security, both the “yield to maturity” and “qualified stated interest” will be determined solely for purposes of calculating the accrual of OID as though the debt security will bear interest in all periods at a fixed rate generally equal to the rate that would be applicable to interest payments on the debt security on its date of issue or, in the case of certain floating rate debt securities, the rate that reflects the yield to maturity that is reasonably expected for the debt security. Additional rules may apply if either:

the interest on a floating rate debt security is based on more than one interest index; or

the principal amount of the debt security is indexed in any manner.
This discussion does not address the tax rules applicable to debt securities with an indexed principal amount or other contingent payments, or debt securities that may be convertible into or exchangeable for other securities. If you are considering the purchase of floating rate OID debt securities, debt securities with indexed principal amounts or other contingent payments, or debt securities that may be convertible into or exchangeable for other securities, you should carefully examine the prospectus supplement or supplements relating to those debt securities, and should consult your own tax advisors regarding the federal income tax consequences to you of holding and disposing of those debt securities.
You may elect to treat all interest on any debt securities as OID and calculate the amount includible in gross income under the constant yield method described above. For purposes of this election, interest includes stated interest, acquisition discount, OID, de minimis OID, market discount, de minimis market discount and unstated interest, as adjusted by any amortizable bond premium or acquisition premium. You must make this election for the taxable year in which you acquired the debt security, and you may not revoke the election without the consent of the IRS. If this election were to be made with respect to a debt security with market discount, you would be deemed to have made an election to currently include in income market discount with respect to all other debt instruments having market discount that you acquire during the year of the election or thereafter, as described below in “— Market Discount.” Similarly, if you make this election for a debt security that is acquired at a premium you will be deemed to have made an election to amortize bond premium with respect to all debt instruments having amortizable bond premium that you own or acquire during the year of the election or thereafter, as described below in “— Amortizable Premium.” You should consult with your own tax advisors about this election.
Market Discount.   If you purchase a debt security for less than the stated redemption price of the debt security at maturity, if the debt security was issued without OID, or the adjusted issue price, if the debt security was issued with OID, the difference is considered market discount to the extent it exceeds a specified de minimis exception. Under the de minimis exception, market discount is treated as zero if the market discount is less than 1/4 of one percent of the stated redemption price of the debt security multiplied by the number of complete years to maturity from the date acquired. If you acquire a debt security at a market discount, you will be required to treat as ordinary income any partial principal payment or gain recognized on the disposition of that debt security to the extent of the market discount which has not previously been included in your income and is treated as having accrued at the time of the payment or disposition. In addition, you may be required to defer the deduction of a portion of the interest on any indebtedness incurred or maintained to purchase or carry the debt security until the debt security is disposed of in a taxable transaction, unless you elect to include market discount in income as it accrues.
Any market discount will be considered to accrue ratably during the period from the date of acquisition to the maturity date of the debt security, unless you elect to accrue on a constant interest method. You may elect to include market discount in income currently as it accrues on either a ratable or constant interest method, in which case the rule described above regarding deferral of interest deductions will not apply. This
 
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election to include market discount in income currently, once made, applies to all market discount obligations acquired on or after the first taxable year to which the election applies and may not be revoked without the consent of the IRS.
Amortizable Premium.   If you purchase a debt security for an amount in excess of the sum of all amounts payable on the debt security after the purchase date other than qualified stated interest, you will be considered to have purchased the debt security with amortizable bond premium equal to the amount of that excess. You generally may elect to amortize the premium using a constant yield method over the remaining term of the debt security. The amount amortized in any year will be treated as a reduction of your interest income from the debt security. If you do not elect to amortize bond premium, that premium will decrease the gain or increase the loss you would otherwise recognize on disposition of the debt security. This election to amortize premium on a constant yield method will also apply to all debt obligations you hold or subsequently acquire on or after the first taxable year to which the election applies and may not be revoked without the consent of the IRS.
If you purchase OID debt securities for an amount that is greater than their adjusted issue price but equal to or less than the sum of all amounts payable on the debt securities after the purchase date other than payments of qualified stated interest, you will be considered to have purchased those debt securities at an “acquisition premium.” Under the acquisition premium rules, the amount of OID that you must include in gross income with respect to those debt securities for any taxable year will be reduced by the portion of the acquisition premium properly allocable to that year.
Sale, Exchange and Retirement of Debt Securities.   Your tax basis in the debt securities that you beneficially own will, in general, be your cost for those debt securities increased by OID and market discount that you previously included in income, and reduced by any amortized premium and any cash payments received with respect to that debt security other than payments of qualified stated interest.
Upon your sale, exchange, retirement or other taxable disposition of the debt securities, you will recognize gain or loss equal to the difference between the amount you realize upon the sale, exchange, retirement or other disposition (less an amount equal to any accrued and unpaid qualified stated interest that will be taxable as interest for U.S. federal income tax purposes if not previously taken into income) and your adjusted tax basis in the debt securities. Except as described above with respect to market discount with respect to gain or loss attributable to changes in exchange rates as described below with respect to foreign currency debt securities, that gain or loss will be capital gain or loss.
Capital gains of individuals derived in respect of capital assets held for more than one year are eligible for reduced rates of taxation. The deductibility of capital losses is subject to limitations.
Extendible Debt Securities, Renewable Debt Securities and Reset Debt Securities.   If so specified in the prospectus supplement or supplements relating to the debt securities of a series, we or you may have the option to extend the maturity of those debt securities. In addition, we may have the option to reset the interest rate, the spread or the spread multiplier.
The U.S. federal income tax treatment of a debt security with respect to which such an option has been exercised is unclear and will depend, in part, on the terms established for such debt securities by us pursuant to the exercise of the option. You may be treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes as having exchanged your debt securities for new debt securities with revised terms. If this is the case, you would realize gain or loss equal to the difference between the issue price of the new debt securities and your adjusted tax basis in the old debt securities.
If the exercise of the option is not treated as an exchange of old debt securities for new debt securities, you will not recognize gain or loss as a result of such exchange.
The presence of such options may also affect the calculation of OID, among other things. Solely for purposes of the accrual of OID, if we issue debt securities and have an option or combination of options to extend the term of those debt securities, we will be presumed to exercise such option or options in a manner that minimizes the yield on those debt securities. Conversely, if you are treated as having a put option, such an option will be presumed to be exercised in a manner that maximizes the yield on those debt securities. If we exercise such option or options to extend the term of those debt securities, or your option
 
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to put does not occur (contrary to the assumptions made), then solely for purposes of the accrual of OID, those debt securities will be treated as reissued on the date of the change in circumstances for an amount equal to their adjusted issue price on the date.
You should carefully examine the prospectus supplement or supplements relating to any such debt securities, and should consult your own tax advisor regarding the U.S. federal income tax consequences of the holding and disposition of such debt securities.
Information Reporting and Backup Withholding.   In general, information reporting requirements will apply to certain payments of principal, premium, if any, redemption price, if any, OID, if any, interest and other amounts paid to you on the debt securities and to the proceeds of sales of the debt securities made to you unless you are an exempt recipient. A backup withholding tax may apply to such payments if you fail to provide to the applicable withholding agent a correct taxpayer identification number or certification of foreign or other exempt status or fail to report in full dividend and interest income.
Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules will be allowed as a refund or a credit against your U.S. federal income tax liability provided the required information is timely furnished to the IRS.
Non-U.S. Holders
The following is a discussion of the material U.S. federal income and estate tax consequences that generally will apply to you if you are a non-U.S. holder of debt securities.
Federal Withholding Tax.   Under the “portfolio interest” rule, the 30% federal withholding tax will not apply to any payment of interest, including OID, on the debt securities, provided that:

interest paid on the debt securities is not effectively connected with your conduct of a trade or business in the United States;

you do not actually or constructively own 10% or more of the total combined voting power of all classes of our voting stock within the meaning of Section 871(h)(3) of the Code and related U.S. Treasury regulations;

you are not a controlled foreign corporation that is related to us through stock ownership;

you are not a bank whose receipt of interest on the debt securities is described in Section 881(c)(3)(A) of the Code;

the interest is not considered contingent interest under Section 871(h)(4)(A) of the Code and the related U.S. Treasury regulations; and

you provide to the applicable withholding agent your name and address on an IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E (or successor form), and certify, under penalty of perjury, that you are not a U.S. person or (2) you hold your debt securities through certain foreign intermediaries, and you satisfy the certification requirements of applicable U.S. Treasury regulations. Special certification rules apply to certain non-U.S. holders that are pass-through entities rather than corporations or individuals.
If you cannot satisfy the requirements described above, payments of interest, including OID, made to you will be subject to the 30% federal withholding tax (which will be deducted from such interest payments by the paying agent), unless you provide to the applicable withholding agent with a properly executed:

IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E (or successor form) claiming an exemption from or reduction in the rate of withholding under the benefit of an applicable tax treaty; or

IRS Form W-8ECI (or successor form) stating that interest paid on the debt securities is not subject to withholding tax because it is effectively connected with your conduct of a trade or business in the United States as discussed below.
Special certification rules apply to certain non-U.S. holders that are pass-through entities rather than corporations or individuals. The 30% federal withholding tax generally will not apply to any payment of principal or gain that you realize on the sale, exchange, retirement or other taxable disposition of any of the debt securities.
 
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U.S. Federal Income Tax.   If you are engaged in a trade or business in the United States and interest, including OID, on the debt securities is effectively connected with the conduct of that trade or business, you will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on that interest, including OID, on a net income basis (although you will be exempt from the 30% withholding tax, provided the certification requirements discussed above are satisfied) in the same manner as if you were a U.S. person as defined in the Code. In addition, if you are a foreign corporation, you may be subject to a branch profits tax equal to 30% (or lower applicable treaty rate) of your earnings and profits for the taxable year, subject to adjustments, that are effectively connected with the conduct by you of a trade or business in the United States. For this purpose, interest, including OID, on debt securities will be included in your earnings and profits.
Any gain realized on the disposition of debt securities generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax unless:

that gain is effectively connected with your conduct of a trade or business in the United States and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, is attributable to a U.S. permanent establishment; or

you are an individual who is present in the United States for 183 days or more in the taxable year of that disposition and certain other conditions are met.
U.S. Federal Estate Tax.   Your estate will not be subject to U.S. federal estate tax on the debt securities beneficially owned by you at the time of your death, provided that any payment to you on the debt securities, including OID, would be eligible for exemption from the 30% federal withholding tax under the “portfolio interest” rule described above under “— Federal Withholding Tax,” without regard to the certification requirement described in the sixth bullet point of that section.
Information Reporting and Backup Withholding.   Generally, we must report to the IRS and to you the amount of interest, including OID, on the debt securities paid to you and the amount of tax, if any, withheld with respect to such payments. Copies of the information returns reporting such interest payments and any withholding may also be made available to the tax authorities in the country in which you reside under the provisions of an applicable income tax treaty.
In general, backup withholding will not apply to payments that we make or any of our paying agents (in its capacity as such) makes to you if you have provided the required certification to the applicable withholding agent that you are a non-U.S. holder as described above and provided that neither we nor any of our paying agents has actual knowledge or reason to know that you are a U.S. holder (as described above).
In addition, you will not be subject to backup withholding and information reporting with respect to the proceeds of the sale of debt securities within the United States or conducted through certain U.S.-related financial intermediaries, if the payor receives the certification described above and does not have actual knowledge or reason to know that you are a U.S. person, as defined under the Code, or you otherwise establish an exemption.
Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules will be allowed as a refund or a credit against your U.S. federal income tax liability provided the required information is timely furnished to the IRS.
Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act Withholding
Pursuant to the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (“FATCA”), foreign financial institutions (which include most foreign hedge funds, private equity funds, mutual funds, securitization vehicles and any other investment vehicles) and certain other foreign entities must comply with registration and information reporting rules with respect to their U.S. account holders and investors or be subject to a withholding tax on U.S.-source payments made to them (whether received as a beneficial owner or as an intermediary for another party). A foreign financial institution or other foreign entity that does not comply with the FATCA registration and reporting requirements will generally be subject to a new 30% withholding tax on “withholdable payments.” For this purpose, withholdable payments generally include U.S.-source payments (including U.S. source dividends), and (subject to the proposed Treasury Regulations below) the gross proceeds from a sale of equity or debt instruments of issuers who are considered U.S. issuers under the FATCA rules. The FATCA withholding tax applies even if the payment would otherwise not be subject to U.S. nonresident withholding tax (e.g., because it is capital gain). While withholding under FATCA would
 
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have applied also to payments of gross proceeds from the sale or disposition of our capital stock after January 1, 2019, proposed Treasury Regulations eliminate FATCA withholding on payments of gross proceeds entirely. Taxpayers may rely on these proposed Treasury Regulations until final Treasury Regulations are issued. Foreign financial institutions located in jurisdictions that have an intergovernmental agreement with the United States governing FATCA may be subject to different rules. We will not pay additional amounts in respect of amounts withheld. Investors should consult their tax advisors regarding FATCA.
Taxable REIT Subsidiaries
We own, directly or indirectly, the stock of several TRSs. A TRS is a fully taxable corporation for which a TRS election is properly made and is required to pay regular U.S. federal income tax, and state and local income tax where applicable, as a non-REIT “C” corporation. In addition, a TRS may be prevented from deducting interest on debt funded directly or indirectly by us if certain tests are not satisfied, as described below in “— Interest Deduction Limitation.”. A TRS may lease hotels from us under certain circumstances, provide services to our tenants, and perform activities unrelated to our tenants, such as third-party management, development, and other independent business activities. A corporation of which a TRS directly or indirectly owns more than 35% of the voting power or value of the stock will automatically be treated as a TRS. Overall, no more than 20% (25% with respect to taxable years beginning on or after July 31, 2008 and before January 1, 2018) of the value of our assets may consist of the securities of TRSs.
A TRS may not directly or indirectly operate or manage any hotels or health care facilities or provide rights to any brand name under which any hotel or health care facility is operated. However, rents received by us from a TRS pursuant to a hotel lease will qualify as “rents from real property” as long as the hotel is operated on behalf of the TRS by a person who satisfies the following requirements:

such person is, or is related to a person who is, actively engaged in the trade or business of operating “qualified lodging facilities” for any person unrelated to us and the TRS;

such person does not own, directly or indirectly, more than 35% of our stock;

no more than 35% of such person is owned, directly or indirectly, by one or more persons owning 35% or more of our stock; and

we do not directly or indirectly derive any income from such person.
A “qualified lodging facility” is a hotel, motel, or other establishment more than one-half of the dwelling units in which are used on a transient basis, unless wagering activities are conducted at or in connection with such facility by any person who is engaged in the business of accepting wagers and who is legally authorized to engage in such business at or in connection with such facility. A “qualified lodging facility” includes customary amenities and facilities operated as part of, or associated with, the lodging facility as long as such amenities and facilities are customary for other properties of a comparable size and class owned by other unrelated owners.
The TRS rules limit the deductibility of interest paid or accrued by a TRS to us to assure that the TRS is subject to an appropriate level of corporate taxation. Further, the rules impose a 100% excise tax on certain transactions between a TRS and us or our tenants that are not conducted on an arm’s-length basis. We intend that all of our transactions with any TRS that we form will be conducted on an arm’s-length basis, but there can be no assurance that we will be successful in this regard.
We have formed and made a timely election with respect to each of our TRSs, which lease each of our properties not owned by a TRS. Additionally, we may form or acquire additional TRSs in the future.
State and Local Taxes
We and/or you may be subject to state and local tax in various states and localities, including those states and localities in which we or you transact business, own property, or reside. The state and local tax treatment in such jurisdictions may differ from the U.S. federal income tax treatment described above. Consequently, you should consult your own tax advisor regarding the effect of state and local tax laws upon an investment in our capital stock.
 
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Legislative or Other Actions Affecting REITs
The present U.S. federal income tax treatment of REITs may be modified, possibly with retroactive effect, by legislative, judicial or administrative action at any time. The REIT rules are constantly under review by persons involved in the legislative process and by the IRS and the U.S. Treasury Department which may result in statutory changes as well as revisions to regulations and interpretations. Additionally, several of the tax considerations described herein are currently under review and are subject to change. Prospective investors are urged to consult with their own tax advisors regarding the effect of potential changes to the federal tax laws on an investment in our securities.
THE TAX DISCUSSION SET FORTH ABOVE IS FOR GENERAL INFORMATION ONLY AND SHOULD NOT BE CONSIDERED TO DESCRIBE FULLY THE TAX CONSEQUENCES OF AN INVESTMENT IN THE COMPANY. INVESTORS ARE STRONGLY URGED TO CONSULT, AND MUST RELY ON, THEIR OWN TAX ADVISERS WITH RESPECT TO THE TAX CONSEQUENCES OF HOLDING SECURITIES IN THE COMPANY, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION THE EFFECT OF U.S. FEDERAL TAXES (INCLUDING TAXES OTHER THAN INCOME TAXES) AND STATE, LOCAL AND FOREIGN TAX CONSIDERATIONS, AS WELL AS THE POTENTIAL CONSEQUENCES OF ANY CHANGES THERETO MADE BY FUTURE LEGISLATIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE OR JUDICIAL DEVELOPMENTS (WHICH MAY HAVE RETROACTIVE EFFECT).
PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
The common shares, preferred shares, depositary shares, debt securities, warrants, rights and units may be sold:

to or through underwriting syndicates represented by managing underwriters;

through one or more underwriters without a syndicate for them to offer and sell to the public;

through dealers or agents;

in “at the market offerings” to or through a market maker or into an existing trading market, or a securities exchange or otherwise; or

to investors directly in negotiated sales or in competitively bid transactions.
The prospectus supplement for each series of securities we sell will describe that offering, including:

the name or names of any underwriters;

the purchase price, the proceeds from that sale and the expected use of such proceeds;

any underwriting discounts and other items constituting underwriters’ compensation;

any initial public offering price and any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers; and

any securities exchanges on which the securities may be listed.
Underwriters
If underwriters are used in the sale, we will execute an underwriting agreement with the underwriters relating to the securities that we will offer. Unless otherwise set forth in the prospectus supplement, the obligations of the underwriters to purchase these securities will be subject to conditions. The underwriters will be obligated to purchase all of the offered securities if any are purchased.
The securities subject to the underwriting agreement will be acquired by the underwriters for their own account and may be resold by them from time to time in one or more transactions, including negotiated transactions, at a fixed public offering price or at varying prices determined at the time of sale. Underwriters may be deemed to have received compensation from us in the form of underwriting discounts or commissions and may also receive commissions from the purchasers of these securities for whom they may act as agent. Underwriters may sell these securities to or through dealers. These dealers may receive
 
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compensation in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions from the underwriters and/or commissions from the purchasers for whom they may act as agent. Any initial public offering price and any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers may be changed from time to time.
We also may sell the securities in connection with a remarketing upon their purchase, in connection with a redemption or repayment, by a remarketing firm acting as principal for its own account or as our agent. Remarketing firms may be deemed to be underwriters in connection with the securities that they remarket.
We may authorize underwriters to solicit offers by institutions to purchase the securities subject to the underwriting agreement from us, at the public offering price stated in the prospectus supplement under delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on a specified date in the future. If we sell securities under these delayed delivery contracts, the prospectus supplement will state that as well as the conditions to which these delayed delivery contracts will be subject and the commissions payable for that solicitation.
Agents
We may also sell any of the securities through agents designated by us from time to time. We will name any agent involved in the offer or sale of these securities and will list commissions payable by us to any such agents in the prospectus supplement. These agents will be acting on a best efforts basis to solicit purchases for the period of their appointment, unless we state otherwise in the prospectus supplement.
Direct Sales
We may sell any of the securities directly to purchasers. In this case, we will not engage underwriters or agents in the offer and sale of these securities.
Indemnification
We may indemnify underwriters, dealers or agents who participate in the distribution of securities against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act and agree to contribute to payments which these underwriters, dealers or agents may be required to make.
No Assurance of Liquidity
The securities offered hereby may be a new issue of securities with no established trading market. Any underwriters that purchase securities from us may make a market in these securities. The underwriters will not be obligated, however, to make a market and may discontinue market-making at any time without notice to holders of the securities. We cannot assure you that there will be liquidity in the trading market for any securities of any series.
EXPERTS
The consolidated financial statements and schedule as of December 31, 2021 and 2020 and for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2021 and management’s assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2021 incorporated by reference in this Prospectus and in the Registration Statement have been so incorporated in reliance on the reports of BDO USA, LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, incorporated herein by reference, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.
LEGAL MATTERS
Certain legal matters will be passed upon for us by Cadwalader, Wickersham & Taft LLP, New York, New York. Certain Maryland law matters in connection with this offering will be passed upon for us by Hogan Lovells US LLP. Cadwalader, Wickersham & Taft LLP will rely on the opinion of Hogan Lovells US LLP as to all matters of Maryand law. Certain legal tax matters, including our status as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes, will be passed upon for us by O’Melveny & Myers LLP. Certain matters may be passed upon by counsel for the underwriters named in the applicable prospectus supplement.
 
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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other documents with the SEC under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. You may read and copy any materials that we file with the SEC without charge at the public reference room of the Securities and Exchange Commission, 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, DC 20549-1090. Information about the operation of the public reference room may be obtained by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0300. Also, the SEC maintains an internet website that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers, including Ashford, that file electronically with the SEC. The public can obtain any documents that we file with the SEC at www.sec.gov.
We also make available free of charge on or through our internet website (www.ahtreit.com) our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and, if applicable, amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC.
This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the SEC. This prospectus does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement and exhibits and schedules to the registration statement. For further information with respect to our Company and our securities, reference is made to the registration statement, including the exhibits and schedules to the registration statement. Statements contained in this prospectus as to the contents of any contract or other document referred to in this prospectus are not necessarily complete and, where that contract is an exhibit to the registration statement, each statement is qualified in all respects by reference to the exhibit to which the reference relates.
INCORPORATION OF INFORMATION BY REFERENCE
The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” into this prospectus the information we file with the SEC. This permits us to disclose important information to you by referencing these filed documents. Any information referenced in this way is considered part of this prospectus. Any subsequent information filed with the SEC will automatically be deemed to update and supersede the information in this prospectus and in our other filings with the SEC. Any such updated or superseded statement will not be deemed, except as so updated or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus. We incorporate by reference the documents listed below and any filings made by us with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act on and after the date of the initial filing of the registration statement and prior to the effectiveness of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and any filing made by us with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the effectiveness of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part prior to the termination of the offering of the underlying securities; provided, however, we are not incorporating by reference any information furnished (but not filed) under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of any Current Report on Form 8-K:



Our Current Reports on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on January 6, 2022, January 18, 2022, January 19, 2022, January 24, 2022, February 23, 2022, February 24, 2022, March 9, 2022, March 16, 2022, March 18, 2022 and March 23, 2022 (except for the information furnished under Items 2.02 or 7.01 and the exhibits furnished therewith); and

 
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You may obtain copies of these documents at no cost by writing or telephoning us at the following address:
Investor Relations
Ashford Hospitality Trust, Inc.
14185 Dallas Parkway, Suite 1200
Dallas, Texas 75254
(972) 490-9600
 
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