false2021FY0001378789☐☐☐P9MP1MP3MP6MP1MP3MP6MP9Mhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2021-01-31#OtherAssetshttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2021-01-31#OtherAssetsP1MP6MP10YP3MP10YP3MP5YP5YP5YP6MP12Mhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2021-01-31#AccountsPayableAndAccruedLiabilitiesCurrentAndNoncurrenthttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2021-01-31#AccountsPayableAndAccruedLiabilitiesCurrentAndNoncurrenthttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2021-01-31#LongTermDebthttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2021-01-31#LongTermDebtP3Yoneone00013787892021-01-012021-12-310001378789dei:BusinessContactMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789us-gaap:CommonStockMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789aer:A5.875FixedRateResetJuniorSubordinatedNotesdue2079Member2021-01-012021-12-3100013787892021-12-31xbrli:sharesiso4217:USD00013787892020-12-31iso4217:EURxbrli:shares0001378789us-gaap:VariableInterestEntityPrimaryBeneficiaryMember2021-12-310001378789us-gaap:VariableInterestEntityPrimaryBeneficiaryMember2020-12-310001378789aer:BaseLeaseRentsMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789aer:BaseLeaseRentsMember2020-01-012020-12-310001378789aer:BaseLeaseRentsMember2019-01-012019-12-310001378789aer:MaintenanceRentsAndOtherReceiptsMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789aer:MaintenanceRentsAndOtherReceiptsMember2020-01-012020-12-310001378789aer:MaintenanceRentsAndOtherReceiptsMember2019-01-012019-12-3100013787892020-01-012020-12-3100013787892019-01-012019-12-31iso4217:USDxbrli:shares00013787892019-12-3100013787892018-12-310001378789aer:NonCashInvestingAndFinancingActivitiesMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789aer:NonCashInvestingAndFinancingActivitiesMember2021-12-3100013787892021-11-012021-11-300001378789aer:NonCashInvestingAndFinancingActivitiesMember2020-01-012020-12-310001378789aer:NonCashInvestingAndFinancingActivitiesMember2020-12-310001378789aer:NorwegianAirShuttleASAMemberaer:NonCashInvestingAndFinancingActivitiesMember2020-05-012020-05-310001378789aer:NonCashInvestingAndFinancingActivitiesMember2019-01-012019-12-310001378789aer:NonCashInvestingAndFinancingActivitiesMember2019-12-310001378789us-gaap:CommonStockMember2018-12-310001378789us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2018-12-310001378789us-gaap:TreasuryStockMember2018-12-310001378789us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2018-12-310001378789us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2018-12-310001378789us-gaap:ParentMember2018-12-310001378789us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember2018-12-310001378789us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2019-01-012019-12-310001378789us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember2019-01-012019-12-310001378789us-gaap:TreasuryStockMember2019-01-012019-12-310001378789us-gaap:ParentMember2019-01-012019-12-310001378789us-gaap:CommonStockMember2019-01-012019-12-310001378789us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2019-01-012019-12-310001378789us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2019-01-012019-12-310001378789us-gaap:CommonStockMember2019-12-310001378789us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2019-12-310001378789us-gaap:TreasuryStockMember2019-12-310001378789us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2019-12-310001378789us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2019-12-310001378789us-gaap:ParentMember2019-12-310001378789us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember2019-12-310001378789us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2020-01-012020-12-310001378789us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember2020-01-012020-12-310001378789us-gaap:TreasuryStockMember2020-01-012020-12-310001378789us-gaap:ParentMember2020-01-012020-12-310001378789us-gaap:CommonStockMember2020-01-012020-12-310001378789us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2020-01-012020-12-310001378789us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMembersrt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMember2019-12-310001378789us-gaap:ParentMembersrt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMember2019-12-310001378789srt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMember2019-12-310001378789us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2020-01-012020-12-310001378789us-gaap:CommonStockMember2020-12-310001378789us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2020-12-310001378789us-gaap:TreasuryStockMember2020-12-310001378789us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2020-12-310001378789us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2020-12-310001378789us-gaap:ParentMember2020-12-310001378789us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember2020-12-310001378789us-gaap:CommonStockMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789us-gaap:ParentMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789us-gaap:TreasuryStockMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789us-gaap:CommonStockMember2021-12-310001378789us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2021-12-310001378789us-gaap:TreasuryStockMember2021-12-310001378789us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2021-12-310001378789us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2021-12-310001378789us-gaap:ParentMember2021-12-310001378789us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember2021-12-31aer:aircraftaer:engineaer:helicopter0001378789us-gaap:CommonStockMemberaer:GECapitalAviationServicesDue2023Member2021-11-012021-11-010001378789aer:GECapitalAviationServicesDue2023Member2021-11-012021-11-010001378789aer:GeneralElectricMemberaer:AerCapHoldingsNVMember2021-11-01xbrli:pure0001378789aer:GeneralElectricMember2021-11-01aer:numberOfDirectors0001378789srt:MinimumMemberaer:GECapitalAviationServicesDue2023Member2021-11-012021-11-010001378789srt:MaximumMemberaer:GECapitalAviationServicesDue2023Member2021-11-012021-11-010001378789aer:PassengerAircraftMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789aer:PassengerAircraftMember2021-12-310001378789aer:FreighterAircraftMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789aer:FreighterAircraftMember2021-12-310001378789aer:HelicoptersMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789aer:HelicoptersMember2021-12-310001378789aer:EnginesMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789aer:EnginesMember2021-12-31aer:segment0001378789aer:FloatingRateDebtMemberus-gaap:LondonInterbankOfferedRateLIBORMember2021-12-310001378789aer:FloatingRateDebtMemberaer:OneMonthLIBORMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789aer:ThreeMonthLIBORMemberaer:FloatingRateDebtMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789aer:FloatingRateDebtMemberaer:SixMonthLIBORMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789aer:GECapitalAviationServicesDue2023Member2021-11-010001378789aer:GECapitalAviationServicesDue2023Member2021-10-292021-10-290001378789aer:GECapitalAviationServicesDue2023Member2021-10-290001378789us-gaap:UnsecuredDebtMemberaer:GECASAcquisitionSeniorNotesMemberaer:GECapitalAviationServicesDue2023Member2021-10-290001378789us-gaap:UnsecuredDebtMemberaer:GECASAcquisition1899SeniorUnsecuredNotesDue2025Memberaer:GECapitalAviationServicesDue2023Member2021-11-010001378789us-gaap:CommonStockMemberaer:GECapitalAviationServicesDue2023Member2021-11-112021-11-110001378789aer:GECapitalAviationServicesDue2023Memberaer:BankingFeesMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789aer:ProfessionalFeesAndOtherExpensesMemberaer:GECapitalAviationServicesDue2023Member2021-01-012021-12-310001378789aer:GECapitalAviationServicesDue2023Memberaer:SeveranceAndOtherCompensationExpensesMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789aer:GECapitalAviationServicesDue2023Member2021-01-012021-12-310001378789aer:GECapitalAviationServicesDue2023Member2021-11-012021-12-310001378789aer:GECapitalAviationServicesDue2023Member2020-01-012020-12-310001378789us-gaap:DisposalGroupHeldforsaleNotDiscontinuedOperationsMember2021-12-310001378789aer:MaintenanceRightsAndLeasePremiumMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789aer:MaintenanceRightsMember2020-12-310001378789aer:MaintenanceRightsMember2019-12-310001378789aer:MaintenanceRightsMemberaer:GECapitalAviationServicesDue2023Member2021-01-012021-12-310001378789aer:MaintenanceRightsMemberaer:GECapitalAviationServicesDue2023Member2020-01-012020-12-310001378789aer:MaintenanceRightsMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789aer:MaintenanceRightsMember2020-01-012020-12-310001378789aer:MaintenanceRightsMember2021-12-310001378789aer:LeasePremiumsMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789aer:LeasePremiumsMember2021-12-310001378789us-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMember2021-12-310001378789us-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMember2020-12-310001378789aer:OtherContractualIntangibleAssetsMember2021-12-310001378789aer:OtherContractualIntangibleAssetsMember2020-12-310001378789aer:CustomerRelationshipsAndOtherIntangibleAssetsMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789us-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMember2020-01-012020-12-310001378789us-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMember2019-01-012019-12-310001378789us-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789aer:CustomerRelationshipsAndOtherIntangibleAssetsMember2021-12-310001378789aer:ShannonEngineSupportLtdMember2021-12-310001378789aer:ShannonEngineSupportLtdMember2020-12-310001378789aer:AerdragonMember2021-12-310001378789aer:AerdragonMember2020-12-310001378789aer:AerliftLeasingLtdMember2021-12-310001378789aer:AerliftLeasingLtdMember2020-12-310001378789aer:EinnVolantAircraftLeasingHoldingsLtdMember2021-12-310001378789aer:EinnVolantAircraftLeasingHoldingsLtdMember2020-12-310001378789aer:AcsalHoldcoLLCMember2021-12-310001378789aer:AcsalHoldcoLLCMember2020-12-310001378789aer:GileadAviationDesignedActivityCompanyMember2021-12-310001378789aer:GileadAviationDesignedActivityCompanyMember2020-12-310001378789aer:MubadalaInfrastructureInvestmentsLimitedMember2021-12-310001378789aer:MubadalaInfrastructureInvestmentsLimitedMember2020-12-310001378789srt:MaximumMember2021-12-310001378789aer:DeferralAgreementsMember2021-12-310001378789aer:DeferralAgreementsMember2020-12-310001378789aer:AircraftSaleReceivableMember2021-12-310001378789aer:AircraftSaleReceivableMember2020-12-310001378789aer:GeneralElectricMember2021-12-310001378789srt:MinimumMember2021-12-310001378789us-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMemberus-gaap:InterestRateCapMemberus-gaap:NondesignatedMember2021-12-310001378789us-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMemberus-gaap:InterestRateCapMemberus-gaap:NondesignatedMember2020-12-310001378789us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMemberus-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMember2021-12-310001378789us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMemberus-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMember2020-12-310001378789us-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMemberus-gaap:InterestRateCapMemberus-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMember2021-12-310001378789us-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMemberus-gaap:InterestRateCapMemberus-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMember2020-12-310001378789us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMemberus-gaap:NondesignatedMember2021-12-310001378789us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMemberus-gaap:NondesignatedMember2020-12-310001378789us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMember2020-01-012020-12-310001378789us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMember2019-01-012019-12-310001378789us-gaap:InterestRateCapMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789us-gaap:InterestRateCapMember2020-01-012020-12-310001378789us-gaap:InterestRateCapMember2019-01-012019-12-310001378789aer:InterestRateCapsAndSwapsMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789aer:InterestRateCapsAndSwapsMember2020-01-012020-12-310001378789aer:InterestRateCapsAndSwapsMember2019-01-012019-12-310001378789us-gaap:UnsecuredDebtMemberaer:ILFCLegacyNotesMember2021-12-310001378789us-gaap:UnsecuredDebtMemberaer:ILFCLegacyNotesMember2020-12-310001378789us-gaap:UnsecuredDebtMemberaer:AerCapTrustAICDCNotesMember2021-12-310001378789us-gaap:UnsecuredDebtMemberaer:AerCapTrustAICDCNotesMember2020-12-310001378789us-gaap:UnsecuredDebtMemberaer:AsiaAndCitiRevolvingCreditFacilitiesMember2021-12-310001378789us-gaap:UnsecuredDebtMemberaer:AsiaAndCitiRevolvingCreditFacilitiesMember2020-12-310001378789us-gaap:UnsecuredDebtMemberaer:OtherUnsecuredDebtMember2021-12-310001378789us-gaap:UnsecuredDebtMemberaer:OtherUnsecuredDebtMember2020-12-310001378789us-gaap:UnsecuredDebtMemberaer:UnsecuredDebtFairValueAdjustmentMember2021-12-310001378789us-gaap:UnsecuredDebtMemberaer:UnsecuredDebtFairValueAdjustmentMember2020-12-310001378789us-gaap:UnsecuredDebtMember2021-12-310001378789us-gaap:UnsecuredDebtMember2020-12-310001378789aer:ExportCreditFacilitiesMemberus-gaap:SecuredDebtMember2021-12-31aer:aircraftAndEngines0001378789aer:ExportCreditFacilitiesMemberus-gaap:SecuredDebtMember2020-12-310001378789aer:InstitutionalSecuredTermLoansMemberus-gaap:SecuredDebtMember2021-12-310001378789aer:InstitutionalSecuredTermLoansMemberus-gaap:SecuredDebtMember2020-12-310001378789aer:AerfundingRevolvingCreditFacilityMemberus-gaap:SecuredDebtMember2021-12-310001378789aer:AerfundingRevolvingCreditFacilityMemberus-gaap:SecuredDebtMember2020-12-310001378789us-gaap:SecuredDebtMemberaer:OtherSecuredDebtMember2021-12-310001378789us-gaap:SecuredDebtMemberaer:OtherSecuredDebtMember2020-12-310001378789aer:SecuredDebtFairValueAdjustmentMemberus-gaap:SecuredDebtMember2021-12-310001378789aer:SecuredDebtFairValueAdjustmentMemberus-gaap:SecuredDebtMember2020-12-310001378789us-gaap:SecuredDebtMember2021-12-310001378789us-gaap:SecuredDebtMember2020-12-310001378789aer:ECAPSSubordinatedDebtAndOtherNotesMemberus-gaap:SubordinatedDebtMember2021-12-310001378789aer:ECAPSSubordinatedDebtAndOtherNotesMemberus-gaap:SubordinatedDebtMember2020-12-310001378789us-gaap:SubordinatedDebtMemberaer:SubordinatedDebtVariableInterestEntitiesMember2021-12-310001378789us-gaap:SubordinatedDebtMemberaer:SubordinatedDebtVariableInterestEntitiesMember2020-12-310001378789us-gaap:SubordinatedDebtMemberaer:SubordinatedDebtFairValueAdjustmentMember2021-12-310001378789us-gaap:SubordinatedDebtMemberaer:SubordinatedDebtFairValueAdjustmentMember2020-12-310001378789us-gaap:SubordinatedDebtMember2021-12-310001378789us-gaap:SubordinatedDebtMember2020-12-310001378789aer:FloatingRateDebtMember2021-12-310001378789us-gaap:UnsecuredDebtMemberaer:AerCapTrustAICDCNotesMembersrt:MinimumMember2021-12-310001378789us-gaap:UnsecuredDebtMembersrt:MaximumMemberaer:AerCapTrustAICDCNotesMember2021-12-310001378789us-gaap:UnsecuredDebtMemberaer:AerCapTrustAICDCNotesMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789us-gaap:UnsecuredDebtMemberaer:A175BillionGECASAcquisitionSeniorNotesDue2023Memberaer:GECapitalAviationServicesDue2023Member2021-10-290001378789us-gaap:UnsecuredDebtMemberaer:A325BillionGECASAcquisitionSeniorNotesDue2024Memberaer:GECapitalAviationServicesDue2023Member2021-10-290001378789us-gaap:UnsecuredDebtMemberaer:A10BillionGECASAcquisitionSeniorNotesDue2024Memberaer:GECapitalAviationServicesDue2023Member2021-10-290001378789us-gaap:UnsecuredDebtMemberaer:A375BillionGECASAcquisitionSeniorNotesDue2026Memberaer:GECapitalAviationServicesDue2023Member2021-10-290001378789us-gaap:UnsecuredDebtMemberaer:A375BillionGECASAcquisitionSeniorNotesDue2028Memberaer:GECapitalAviationServicesDue2023Member2021-10-290001378789us-gaap:UnsecuredDebtMemberaer:A40BillionGECASAcquisitionSeniorNotesDue2032Memberaer:GECapitalAviationServicesDue2023Member2021-10-290001378789us-gaap:UnsecuredDebtMemberaer:A15BillionGECASAcquisitionSeniorNotesDue2033Memberaer:GECapitalAviationServicesDue2023Member2021-10-290001378789us-gaap:UnsecuredDebtMemberaer:A15BillionGECASAcquisitionSeniorNotesDue2041Memberaer:GECapitalAviationServicesDue2023Member2021-10-290001378789us-gaap:UnsecuredDebtMemberaer:A500MillionGECASAcquisitionFloatingRateSeniorNotesDue2023Memberaer:GECapitalAviationServicesDue2023Member2021-10-290001378789us-gaap:UnsecuredDebtMemberaer:AsiaRevolverMember2018-03-310001378789us-gaap:UnsecuredDebtMemberaer:AsiaRevolverMember2021-08-310001378789us-gaap:UnsecuredDebtMemberaer:CitiRevolverIMember2019-10-310001378789us-gaap:UnsecuredDebtMemberaer:CitiRevolverIMember2019-10-012019-10-310001378789us-gaap:UnsecuredDebtMemberaer:CitiRevolverIIMember2021-03-300001378789aer:ExportCreditFacilitiesMembersrt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:SecuredDebtMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789srt:MaximumMemberaer:ExportCreditFacilitiesMemberus-gaap:SecuredDebtMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789us-gaap:SecuredDebtMemberaer:InstitutionalSecuredTermLoansSetantaFacilityMember2021-12-310001378789us-gaap:SecuredDebtMemberaer:InstitutionalSecuredTermLoansSetantaFacilityMember2020-12-310001378789aer:InstitutionalSecuredTermLoansHyperionFacilityMemberus-gaap:SecuredDebtMember2021-12-310001378789aer:InstitutionalSecuredTermLoansHyperionFacilityMemberus-gaap:SecuredDebtMember2020-12-310001378789aer:CeltagoCeltagoIIFacilitiesMemberus-gaap:SecuredDebtMember2021-12-310001378789aer:CeltagoCeltagoIIFacilitiesMemberus-gaap:SecuredDebtMember2020-12-310001378789aer:CesiumFacilityMemberus-gaap:SecuredDebtMember2021-12-310001378789aer:CesiumFacilityMemberus-gaap:SecuredDebtMember2020-12-310001378789us-gaap:SecuredDebtMemberaer:GoldfishFacilityMember2021-12-310001378789us-gaap:SecuredDebtMemberaer:GoldfishFacilityMember2020-12-310001378789us-gaap:SecuredDebtMemberaer:ScandiumMember2021-12-310001378789us-gaap:SecuredDebtMemberaer:ScandiumMember2020-12-310001378789aer:RhodiumFacilityMemberus-gaap:SecuredDebtMember2021-12-310001378789aer:RhodiumFacilityMemberus-gaap:SecuredDebtMember2020-12-310001378789us-gaap:SecuredDebtMemberaer:OtherSecuredFacilitiesMember2021-12-310001378789us-gaap:SecuredDebtMemberaer:OtherSecuredFacilitiesMember2020-12-310001378789us-gaap:SecuredDebtMemberaer:InstitutionalSecuredTermLoansSetantaFacilityMember2021-11-050001378789aer:Aerfunding1LimitedMemberaer:CharitableTrustMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789aer:Aerfunding1LimitedMemberaer:AercapIrelandMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789aer:TermLoanMemberaer:AerfundingRevolvingCreditFacilityMember2020-12-012020-12-310001378789aer:TermLoanMemberus-gaap:SubsequentEventMemberaer:AerfundingRevolvingCreditFacilityMember2022-03-012022-03-310001378789aer:SubordinatedDebtNotesMemberaer:ECAPSSubordinatedNotesMember2021-12-310001378789aer:SubordinatedDebtNotesMemberaer:ECAPSSubordinatedNotesMember2020-12-310001378789aer:SubordinatedDebtNotesMemberaer:A2045SubordinatedNotesMember2021-12-310001378789aer:SubordinatedDebtNotesMemberaer:A2045SubordinatedNotesMember2020-12-310001378789aer:SubordinatedDebtNotesMemberaer:A2079SubordinatedNotesMember2021-12-310001378789aer:SubordinatedDebtNotesMemberaer:A2079SubordinatedNotesMember2020-12-310001378789aer:SubordinatedDebtNotesMember2021-12-310001378789aer:SubordinatedDebtNotesMember2020-12-310001378789us-gaap:SubordinatedDebtMemberaer:ECAPSSubordinatedNotesMember2005-12-310001378789aer:SubordinatedDebtTrancheTwoMemberus-gaap:SubordinatedDebtMember2005-12-310001378789aer:SubordinatedDebtTrancheOneMemberus-gaap:SubordinatedDebtMember2005-12-310001378789aer:SubordinatedDebtTrancheTwoMemberus-gaap:SubordinatedDebtMember2005-12-012005-12-310001378789aer:SubordinatedDebtTrancheOneMemberus-gaap:SubordinatedDebtMember2005-12-012005-12-310001378789aer:ThreeMonthLIBORMemberus-gaap:SubordinatedDebtMemberaer:ECAPSSubordinatedNotesMember2005-12-012005-12-310001378789aer:TenYearConstantMaturityUSTreasuryMemberus-gaap:SubordinatedDebtMemberaer:ECAPSSubordinatedNotesMember2005-12-012005-12-310001378789us-gaap:SubordinatedDebtMemberaer:ThirtyYearConstantMaturityUSTreasuryMemberaer:ECAPSSubordinatedNotesMember2005-12-012005-12-310001378789us-gaap:SubordinatedDebtMemberaer:A2045JuniorSubordinatedNotesMember2015-06-3000013787892015-06-012015-06-300001378789us-gaap:LondonInterbankOfferedRateLIBORMemberus-gaap:SubordinatedDebtMemberaer:A2045JuniorSubordinatedNotesMember2015-06-012015-06-300001378789us-gaap:SubordinatedDebtMemberaer:A2045JuniorSubordinatedNotesMember2015-06-012015-06-30aer:deferralPeriod0001378789us-gaap:SubordinatedDebtMemberaer:A2079JuniorSubordinatedNotesMember2019-10-3100013787892019-10-012019-10-310001378789us-gaap:SubordinatedDebtMemberus-gaap:UsTreasuryUstInterestRateMemberaer:A2079JuniorSubordinatedNotesMember2019-10-012019-10-310001378789aer:CitiBridgeCreditFacilityMemberus-gaap:BridgeLoanMember2021-03-310001378789aer:CitiBridgeCreditFacilityMemberus-gaap:BridgeLoanMember2021-03-302021-03-300001378789aer:CitiTermLoanCreditAgreementMemberus-gaap:LineOfCreditMember2021-03-310001378789aer:CitiTermLoanCreditAgreementMemberus-gaap:LineOfCreditMember2021-03-302021-03-300001378789aer:CitiTermLoanCreditAgreementMemberus-gaap:LineOfCreditMember2021-11-010001378789country:IE2021-01-012021-12-310001378789country:IE2020-01-012020-12-310001378789country:IE2019-01-012019-12-310001378789country:US2021-01-012021-12-310001378789country:US2020-01-012020-12-310001378789country:US2019-01-012019-12-310001378789us-gaap:ForeignCountryMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789us-gaap:ForeignCountryMember2020-01-012020-12-310001378789us-gaap:ForeignCountryMember2019-01-012019-12-310001378789country:IE2021-12-310001378789country:US2021-12-310001378789us-gaap:ForeignCountryMember2021-12-310001378789country:IE2020-12-310001378789country:US2020-12-310001378789us-gaap:ForeignCountryMember2020-12-310001378789country:IEaer:NoExpirationDateMember2021-12-31aer:company0001378789aer:Between2035And2038Membercountry:US2021-12-310001378789aer:NoExpirationDateMembercountry:US2021-12-3100013787892019-11-3000013787892020-01-310001378789aer:EquityIncentivePlanTwoThousandTwelveMember2012-03-310001378789aer:EquityIncentivePlanTwoThousandFourteenMember2014-05-140001378789aer:EquityIncentivePlanTwoThousandFourteenMember2021-12-310001378789aer:NvEquityPlanMembersrt:MinimumMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789srt:MaximumMemberaer:NvEquityPlanMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789aer:NvEquityPlanMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789aer:TimeBasedRestrictedStockUnitsAndRestrictedStocksMember2020-12-310001378789aer:PeformanceBasedRestrictedStockUnitsAndRestrictedStocksMember2020-12-310001378789aer:TimeBasedRestrictedStockUnitsAndRestrictedStocksMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789aer:PeformanceBasedRestrictedStockUnitsAndRestrictedStocksMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789aer:TimeBasedRestrictedStockUnitsAndRestrictedStocksMember2021-12-310001378789aer:PeformanceBasedRestrictedStockUnitsAndRestrictedStocksMember2021-12-310001378789aer:NvEquityPlanMemberus-gaap:RestrictedStockMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789aer:NvEquityPlanExecutivesMemberus-gaap:RestrictedStockMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789aer:NvEquityPlanExecutivesMemberus-gaap:RestrictedStockMember2021-12-310001378789aer:FirstMilestoneMemberaer:NvEquityPlanExecutivesMemberus-gaap:RestrictedStockMember2021-12-310001378789aer:FirstMilestoneMemberaer:NvEquityPlanExecutivesMemberus-gaap:RestrictedStockMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789aer:NvEquityPlanExecutivesMemberus-gaap:RestrictedStockMemberaer:SecondMilestoneMember2021-12-310001378789aer:NvEquityPlanExecutivesMemberus-gaap:RestrictedStockMemberaer:SecondMilestoneMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMemberaer:NvEquityPlanMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789aer:LapsedRestrictionsOnRestrictedStocksMemberaer:NvEquityPlanMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789us-gaap:ShareBasedCompensationAwardTrancheOneMember2021-12-310001378789us-gaap:ShareBasedCompensationAwardTrancheTwoMember2021-12-310001378789us-gaap:ShareBasedCompensationAwardTrancheThreeMember2021-12-310001378789aer:ShareBasedCompensationAwardTrancheFourMember2021-12-310001378789aer:ShareBasedCompensationAwardTrancheFiveMember2021-12-310001378789aer:AercapGECASPlanMember2021-12-310001378789aer:ActivesMember2021-12-31aer:employee0001378789aer:FrozenActivesMember2021-12-310001378789aer:DeferredsMember2021-12-310001378789aer:PensionersMember2021-12-3100013787892021-11-012021-12-3100013787892021-11-010001378789us-gaap:DefinedBenefitPlanDebtSecurityMember2021-12-310001378789us-gaap:DefinedBenefitPlanEquitySecuritiesMember2021-12-310001378789aer:DefinedBenefitPlanOtherMember2021-12-310001378789country:CN2021-01-012021-12-310001378789country:CNus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMemberus-gaap:SalesRevenueSegmentMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789country:CN2020-01-012020-12-310001378789country:CNus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMemberus-gaap:SalesRevenueSegmentMember2020-01-012020-12-310001378789country:CN2019-01-012019-12-310001378789country:CNus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMemberus-gaap:SalesRevenueSegmentMember2019-01-012019-12-310001378789country:US2021-01-012021-12-310001378789country:USus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMemberus-gaap:SalesRevenueSegmentMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789country:US2020-01-012020-12-310001378789country:USus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMemberus-gaap:SalesRevenueSegmentMember2020-01-012020-12-310001378789country:US2019-01-012019-12-310001378789country:USus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMemberus-gaap:SalesRevenueSegmentMember2019-01-012019-12-310001378789aer:OtherCountriesMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789aer:OtherCountriesMemberus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMemberus-gaap:SalesRevenueSegmentMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789aer:OtherCountriesMember2020-01-012020-12-310001378789aer:OtherCountriesMemberus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMemberus-gaap:SalesRevenueSegmentMember2020-01-012020-12-310001378789aer:OtherCountriesMember2019-01-012019-12-310001378789aer:OtherCountriesMemberus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMemberus-gaap:SalesRevenueSegmentMember2019-01-012019-12-310001378789us-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMemberus-gaap:SalesRevenueSegmentMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789us-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMemberus-gaap:SalesRevenueSegmentMember2020-01-012020-12-310001378789us-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMemberus-gaap:SalesRevenueSegmentMember2019-01-012019-12-310001378789country:CN2021-12-310001378789country:CNus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMemberaer:LongLivedAssetsMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789country:CN2020-12-310001378789country:CNus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMemberaer:LongLivedAssetsMember2020-01-012020-12-310001378789country:US2021-12-310001378789country:USus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMemberaer:LongLivedAssetsMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789country:US2020-12-310001378789country:USus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMemberaer:LongLivedAssetsMember2020-01-012020-12-310001378789aer:OtherCountriesMember2021-12-310001378789aer:OtherCountriesMemberus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMemberaer:LongLivedAssetsMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789aer:OtherCountriesMember2020-12-310001378789aer:OtherCountriesMemberus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMemberaer:LongLivedAssetsMember2020-01-012020-12-310001378789us-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMemberaer:LongLivedAssetsMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789us-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMemberaer:LongLivedAssetsMember2020-01-012020-12-310001378789aer:InvestmentInFinanceLeasesMember2020-12-310001378789us-gaap:NotesReceivableMember2020-12-310001378789us-gaap:LoansReceivableMember2020-12-310001378789aer:InvestmentInFinanceLeasesMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789us-gaap:NotesReceivableMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789us-gaap:LoansReceivableMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789aer:InvestmentInFinanceLeasesMembersrt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMember2020-12-310001378789us-gaap:NotesReceivableMembersrt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMember2020-12-310001378789us-gaap:LoansReceivableMembersrt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMember2020-12-310001378789srt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMember2020-12-310001378789aer:InvestmentInFinanceLeasesMember2021-12-310001378789us-gaap:NotesReceivableMember2021-12-310001378789us-gaap:LoansReceivableMember2021-12-310001378789aer:COVID19PandemicGECASTransactionMember2021-01-012021-12-31aer:category0001378789aer:CategoryAMember2021-12-310001378789aer:CategoryBMember2021-12-310001378789aer:CategoryCMember2021-12-310001378789aer:AerCapPartnersIAndAercapPartners767Memberus-gaap:VariableInterestEntityPrimaryBeneficiaryMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789aer:DeucalionAviationFundsMemberus-gaap:VariableInterestEntityPrimaryBeneficiaryMemberaer:AerCapPartnersIAndAercapPartners767Member2021-01-012021-12-310001378789aer:AercapPartnersIHoldingLimitedMemberus-gaap:VariableInterestEntityPrimaryBeneficiaryMember2021-12-310001378789aer:AercapPartnersIHoldingLimitedMembersrt:ParentCompanyMember2021-12-310001378789aer:AercapPartnersIHoldingLimitedMemberaer:DeucalionAviationFundsMember2021-12-310001378789us-gaap:VariableInterestEntityPrimaryBeneficiaryMemberaer:AercapPartners767HoldingLimitedMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789us-gaap:VariableInterestEntityPrimaryBeneficiaryMemberaer:AercapPartners767HoldingLimitedMember2020-12-310001378789srt:ParentCompanyMemberaer:AercapPartners767HoldingLimitedMember2020-12-310001378789aer:DeucalionAviationFundsMemberaer:AercapPartners767HoldingLimitedMember2020-12-310001378789us-gaap:VariableInterestEntityPrimaryBeneficiaryMemberaer:Aerfunding1LimitedMember2021-12-310001378789us-gaap:VariableInterestEntityPrimaryBeneficiaryMemberaer:Aerfunding1LimitedMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789aer:GeneralElectricMemberaer:AerCapHoldingsNVMember2021-11-010001378789aer:GeneralElectricMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789aer:SESMember2021-12-310001378789aer:SESMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789srt:OfficerMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789us-gaap:CapitalAdditionsMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789aer:EnginesHelicoptersMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789us-gaap:FlightEquipmentMemberus-gaap:CapitalAdditionsMember2021-12-310001378789us-gaap:FlightEquipmentMemberus-gaap:CapitalAdditionsMember2021-01-012021-12-310001378789aer:AircraftMemberaer:VaspLitigationMember1992-12-310001378789aer:VaspLitigationMemberaer:EnginesMember1992-12-310001378789aer:VaspLitigationMember2017-01-012017-12-310001378789aer:VASPLitigationEnglishCourtMemberaer:VaspLitigationMember2006-01-012006-12-310001378789aer:VaspLitigationMemberaer:VASPLitigationIrishCourtMember2006-01-012006-12-310001378789aer:VASPLitigationEnglishCourtMemberaer:VaspLitigationMember2008-01-012008-12-310001378789aer:VaspLitigationMemberaer:VASPLitigationIrishCourtMember2008-01-012008-12-310001378789aer:TransbrasilLitigationMember2011-07-012011-07-31aer:claim0001378789aer:TransbrasilLitigationMemberaer:StatutoryPenaltiesMember2011-07-012011-07-310001378789aer:TransbrasilLitigationMember2011-07-310001378789aer:TransbrasilLitigationMember2013-10-012013-10-310001378789aer:RecoveryofAttorneysFeesMemberaer:TransbrasilLitigationMember2011-07-012011-07-310001378789aer:IndemnityClaimMemberaer:TransbrasilLitigationMember2011-07-012011-07-310001378789us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2021-12-310001378789us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2020-12-310001378789us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2021-12-310001378789us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member2021-12-310001378789us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2021-12-310001378789us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2020-12-310001378789us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member2020-12-310001378789us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2020-12-310001378789us-gaap:MeasurementInputDiscountRateMemberus-gaap:IncomeApproachValuationTechniqueMember2021-12-310001378789aer:MeasurementInputNonContractualCashFlowsMemberus-gaap:IncomeApproachValuationTechniqueMember2021-12-310001378789us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsNonrecurringMember2021-12-310001378789us-gaap:CarryingReportedAmountFairValueDisclosureMember2021-12-310001378789us-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMember2021-12-310001378789us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMember2021-12-310001378789us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMember2021-12-310001378789us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMember2021-12-310001378789us-gaap:CarryingReportedAmountFairValueDisclosureMember2020-12-310001378789us-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMember2020-12-310001378789us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMember2020-12-310001378789us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMember2020-12-310001378789us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMember2020-12-310001378789us-gaap:SubsequentEventMembercountry:RU2022-02-230001378789country:RU2021-12-310001378789aer:ShannonEngineSupportLtdMemberus-gaap:SubsequentEventMembercountry:RU2022-02-230001378789us-gaap:SubsequentEventMembercountry:UA2022-02-230001378789country:UA2021-12-310001378789us-gaap:SubsequentEventMembercountry:UA2022-03-300001378789aer:BaseLeaseRentsMembercountry:RU2021-01-012021-12-310001378789us-gaap:SubsequentEventMembercountry:RU2022-03-300001378789country:RUaer:RepossessedRussianAssetsMember2021-12-310001378789us-gaap:SubsequentEventMember2022-02-240001378789us-gaap:SubsequentEventMember2022-02-242022-03-30aer:financialInstitution0001378789us-gaap:SubsequentEventMemberus-gaap:InsuranceClaimsMember2022-02-24

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 20-F
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES
EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021
Commission file number 001-33159
AerCap Holdings N.V.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
The Netherlands
(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
AerCap House
65 St. Stephen’s Green
Dublin D02 YX20
Ireland
+ 353 1 819 2010
(Address of principal executive offices)
Vincent Drouillard, AerCap House, 65 St. Stephen’s Green, Dublin D02 YX20, Ireland
Telephone number: +353 1 819 2010, Fax number: +353 1 672 0270
(Name, Telephone, Email and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class Trading Symbol(s) Name of each exchange on which registered
Ordinary Shares AER The New York Stock Exchange
5.875% Fixed-Rate Reset Junior Subordinated Notes due 2079 AER79 The New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act: None
Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or ordinary stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report.
Ordinary Shares, Euro 0.01 par value 245,395,448 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes     No 
If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Yes     No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes     No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes     No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer Accelerated filer
Non accelerated filer
(Do not check if a
smaller reporting company)
Emerging growth company
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:
U.S. GAAP International Financial Reporting Standards as
issued by the International Accounting Standards Board
Other
If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow: Item 17 Item 18
If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes     No 



TABLE OF CONTENTS
2
3
3
4
F-1

1


SPECIAL NOTE ABOUT FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS
This annual report includes “forward looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, principally under the captions “Item 3. Key Information—Risk Factors,” “Item 4. Information on the Company” and “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects.” We have based these forward looking statements largely on our current beliefs and projections about future events and financial trends affecting our business. Many important factors, in addition to those discussed in this annual report, could cause our actual results to differ substantially from those anticipated in our forward looking statements, including, among other things:
the severity, extent and duration of the Covid-19 pandemic, including the rate of recovery in air travel, the aviation industry and global economic conditions; the potential impacts of the pandemic and responsive government actions on our business and results of operations, financial condition and cash flows;
the availability of capital to us and to our customers and changes in interest rates;
a downgrade in any of our credit ratings;
the ability of our lessees and potential lessees to make lease payments to us;
our ability to successfully negotiate flight equipment (which includes aircraft, engines and helicopters) purchases, sales and leases, to collect outstanding amounts due and to repossess flight equipment under defaulted leases, and to control costs and expenses;
changes in the overall demand for commercial aviation leasing and aviation asset management services;
the effects of terrorist attacks on the aviation industry and on our operations;
the economic condition of the global airline and cargo industry and economic and political conditions;
development of increased government regulation, including travel restrictions, regulation of trade and the imposition of import and export controls, tariffs and other trade barriers;
competitive pressures within the industry;
the negotiation of flight equipment management services contracts;
our ability to successfully integrate GECAS or achieve the anticipated benefits of the GECAS Transaction;
the potential impact of the consummation of the GECAS Transaction on our relationships, including with employees, suppliers, customers and competitors;
regulatory changes affecting commercial flight equipment operators, flight equipment maintenance, engine standards, accounting standards and taxes; and
the risks set forth in “Item 3. Key Information—Risk Factors” included in this annual report.
The words “believe,” “may,” “will,” “aim,” “estimate,” “continue,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “expect” and similar words are intended to identify forward looking statements. Forward looking statements include information concerning our possible or assumed future results of operations, business strategies, financing plans, competitive position, industry environment, potential growth opportunities, the effects of future regulation and the effects of competition. Forward looking statements speak only as of the date they were made and we undertake no obligation to update publicly or to revise any forward looking statements because of new information, future events or other factors. In light of the risks and uncertainties described above, the forward looking events and circumstances described in this annual report might not occur and are not guarantees of future performance.

2


PART I
Item 1.    Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers
Not applicable.
Item 2.    Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable
Not applicable.
3


Item 3.    Key Information
AerCap Holdings N.V. (together with its subsidiaries, “AerCap,” “we,” “us” or the “Company”) completed the acquisition of the GE Capital Aviation Services (“GECAS”) business from General Electric (“GE”) on November 1, 2021 (the “Closing Date”). We refer to this acquisition as the “GECAS Transaction.” Under the terms of the transaction agreement, GE received 111.5 million newly issued AerCap shares, $23 billion of cash and $1 billion of AerCap senior notes. Immediately following the completion of the GECAS Transaction, GE held approximately 46% of AerCap’s issued and outstanding ordinary shares.
RISK FACTORS

Summary Risk Factors
Risks related to the GECAS Transaction
The GECAS Transaction may not be successful and we may not achieve its anticipated benefits. In particular, we may not successfully realize anticipated growth or cost-savings opportunities or successfully integrate our business and operations with those of the GECAS business.
The GECAS Transaction may prove disruptive and could result in the combined business failing to meet our expectations.
We have incurred a substantial amount of debt to complete the GECAS Transaction, which has significantly increased our indebtedness and debt service obligations, increasing risks relating to our substantial level of indebtedness.
The GECAS Transaction could adversely impact our relationship with our customers and may result in the departure of key personnel.
Investors who were holding our ordinary shares immediately prior to the completion of the GECAS Transaction, in the aggregate, have a significantly reduced ownership and voting interest in us due to the completion of the GECAS Transaction and exercise less influence over management.
Sales by GE of our ordinary shares issued to GE in connection with the GECAS Transaction may negatively affect the market price of our ordinary shares.
Risks related to disease, natural disasters, terrorist attacks and other world events
The Covid-19 pandemic may continue to have a material and adverse impact on the aviation industry and our business.
Global or regional public health developments, extreme weather or natural disasters or other force majeure events may adversely affect the demand for air travel, the financial condition of our lessees and the aviation industry more broadly, and ultimately our financial condition, results and cash flows.
The effects of terrorist attacks and the threat of terrorist attacks, war or armed hostilities may adversely affect the financial condition of the airline industry.
We expect the Russian invasion of Ukraine and the impact of resulting sanctions by the United States, the European Union, the United Kingdom and other countries to adversely affect our business and financial condition, results and cash flows.
Risks relating to our funding and liquidity
We require significant capital to fund our business and service our debt, and changes in the availability of capital or in the interest rates we pay on our debt may affect our operations or financial results.
We have a substantial level of indebtedness and we might incur significantly more debt, which could adversely impact our operating flexibility and subject us to covenants that impose restrictions that may affect our ability to operate our business.
4


Risks relating to market demand for, and lease rates and value of, flight equipment in our fleet
Our business depends heavily on the level of demand for the flight equipment in our fleet, which may decline as a result of factors outside our control, thereby affecting the returns on our flight equipment investments.
Our operations depend on flight equipment manufacturers, whose behavior may change in ways that adversely affect the lease rates and value of flight equipment in our fleet or our results of operations more broadly.
If a decline in demand for certain flight equipment causes a decline in their projected lease rates, or if we dispose of flight equipment for a price that is less than their depreciated book value on our balance sheet, then we will recognize impairments or make fair value adjustments.
Risks related to the financial strength of our lessees
Our financial condition depends, in part, on the financial strength of our lessees, and factors outside of our control may adversely affect our lessees’ operations, their ability to meet their payment obligations to us or their demand for our flight equipment.
Airline bankruptcy proceedings or reorganizations may limit our ability to collect lease rentals and other payments, depress flight equipment market values and adversely affect our ability to re-lease or sell flight equipment at favorable rates, if at all, particularly where such proceedings involve our lessees.
Risks related to our relationship with our lessees
We have limited control over the operation of our flight equipment while they are under lease and we depend on our lessees to properly maintain and insure our flight equipment, which may expose us to additional and unexpected costs.
If our lessees encounter financial difficulties and we restructure or terminate our leases, our ability to re-lease flight equipment on favorable lease terms, collect outstanding amounts due to us, and repossess flight equipment under defaulted leases may be limited and require us to incur additional costs and expenses.
Risks related to competition and the aviation industry
We face significant competition and our business may be adversely affected if market participants change as a result of restructuring or bankruptcies, mergers and acquisitions, or new entities entering or exiting the industry, or if existing competitors enter into new or different market segments.
We rely on a small number of manufacturers for the supply of commercial flight equipment, and any disruption in these manufacturers’ operating abilities may cause us to experience delivery delays on our flight equipment orders. We may experience additional delivery delays and associated costs if flight equipment manufacturers deliver flight equipment that fail to meet our lessees’ expectations or the requirements of air travel regulators.
Risks related to the geopolitical, regulatory and legal exposure of our business
We are exposed to geopolitical, economic and legal risks associated with the international operations of our business and those of our lessees, including many of the economic and political risks associated with emerging markets. We are exposed to concentrated political and economic risks in certain geographical regions in which our lessees are concentrated, particularly China.
Our assets are subject to various environmental regulations and concerns that may be supplemented by additional regulations and requirements or become more stringent, which may negatively affect our operations.

5


Risks related to our IT, structure and taxation
We depend on our information technology systems and those of third-parties, and our business may suffer if they are damaged or interrupted, including by cyberattack.
We are incorporated in the Netherlands and it may be difficult to obtain or enforce judgments against us or our executive officers, some of our directors and some of our named experts in the United States.
We are subject to taxation regimes in various jurisdictions, and we may become subject to additional taxes in those jurisdictions, taxes in other jurisdictions, or experience changes in our tax status in certain jurisdictions, which may affect the effective tax rates that we are subject to and the results of our operations.
Risks related to the GECAS Transaction
The GECAS Transaction may not be successful and we may not achieve its anticipated benefits. In particular, we may not successfully realize anticipated growth or cost-savings opportunities or successfully integrate our business and operations with those of the GECAS business.    
Now that the GECAS Transaction has been completed, we have significantly more revenue, expenses, assets and employees than we did prior to the GECAS Transaction. In the GECAS Transaction, we have assumed all of the liabilities and other obligations of GECAS. Additionally, our management has expended, and will continue to expend, significant time and resources in connection with the GECAS Transaction, and we have incurred, and will continue to incur, significant legal, advisory and financial services fees related to the GECAS Transaction. We may not successfully or cost-effectively integrate GECAS’s business and operations into our business and operations. Even if we are able to integrate GECAS’s business and operations successfully, our future operations and cash flows will depend largely upon our ability to operate the combined company efficiently and this integration may not result in the realization of the full benefits of the growth opportunities, cost-savings or synergies that we currently expect from the GECAS Transaction within the anticipated time frame, or at all.
The GECAS Transaction may prove disruptive and could result in the combined business failing to meet our expectations.
The process of integrating our operations with GECAS may require a disproportionate amount of resources and management attention. Our management team may encounter unforeseen difficulties in managing the integration. In order to successfully combine AerCap and GECAS and operate the combined business, our management team will need to focus on realizing anticipated synergies and cost savings on a timely basis while maintaining the efficiency of our operations. Any substantial diversion of management attention to difficulties in operating the combined business could affect our revenues and ability to achieve operational, financial and strategic objectives.
We have incurred a substantial amount of debt to complete the GECAS Transaction, which has significantly increased our indebtedness and debt service obligations, increasing risks relating to our substantial level of indebtedness.
As of December 31, 2021, the principal amount of our outstanding indebtedness, which excluded debt issuance costs, debt discounts and debt premium of $344 million, was $50.5 billion. To finance the cash portion of the consideration for the GECAS Transaction, we have incurred $24 billion of additional long-term debt, including $1 billion of additional debt issued to GE as additional consideration for the GECAS Transaction. Our ability to make payments on our debt, fund our other liquidity needs, and make planned capital expenditures will depend on the combined company’s ability to generate cash in the future. We cannot guarantee that the combined company will generate sufficient cash or that we will have alternative measures available to us to meet our debt obligations. The substantial level of our indebtedness after giving effect to the GECAS Transaction may limit our ability to raise additional financing on favorable terms or at all in the future, limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business or industry or make us more vulnerable to downturns in our business, our industry or the economy in general, in ways that could negatively affect the price of our ordinary shares as well as our business and financial condition.
The GECAS Transaction could adversely impact our relationship with our customers and may result in the departure of key personnel.
The GECAS Transaction could cause disruptions to our business. For example, our customers may refrain from leasing or re-leasing our aircraft until they determine whether the GECAS Transaction will affect our business, including, but not limited to, the pricing of our leases, the availability of certain aircraft, and our customer support. Our customers may also choose to lease aircraft and purchase services from our competitors until they determine whether the GECAS Transaction will affect our business or our relationship with them. Uncertainty concerning potential changes to us and our business could also harm our ability to enter into agreements with new customers. In addition, key personnel may depart for a variety of reasons, including perceived uncertainty regarding the effect of the GECAS Transaction on their employment.
6


Investors who were holding our ordinary shares immediately prior to the completion of the GECAS Transaction, in the aggregate, have a significantly reduced ownership and voting interest in us due to the completion of the GECAS Transaction and exercise less influence over management.
Investors holding our ordinary shares immediately prior to the completion of the GECAS Transaction, in the aggregate, owned a significantly smaller percentage of the combined company immediately after the completion of the GECAS Transaction. Immediately following the completion of the GECAS Transaction, GE held approximately 46% of our issued and outstanding ordinary shares, and our existing shareholders held approximately 54% of our issued and outstanding ordinary shares. The ordinary shares received by GE are subject to certain voting restrictions and standstill provisions. Furthermore, pursuant to the terms of the shareholders’ agreement, GE is entitled to nominate two directors for election to our Board of Directors. Consequently, existing shareholders, collectively, are able to exercise less influence over the management and policies of the combined company than they were able to exercise over the management and our policies immediately prior to the completion of the GECAS Transaction.
Sales by GE of our ordinary shares issued to GE in connection with the GECAS Transaction may negatively affect the market price of our ordinary shares.
The ordinary shares issued to GE pursuant to the GECAS Transaction are subject to a lock-up period that will expire in stages over a nine to 15 month period following the completion of the GECAS Transaction on November 1, 2021. Sales by GE of these ordinary shares, or the perception in the market that those sales could occur following the expiration of the lock-up period, may negatively affect the price of our ordinary shares.
Risks related to disease, natural disasters, terrorist attacks and other world events
The Covid-19 pandemic may continue to have a material and adverse impact on our business.
On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization declared that the Covid-19 outbreak was a pandemic. The Covid-19 pandemic and responsive government actions have caused significant economic disruption and a dramatic reduction in commercial airline traffic, resulting in a broad adverse impact on air travel, the aviation industry and demand for commercial aircraft globally, all of which has impacted our results of operations. The continued impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on our business will depend, among other things, on the duration of the pandemic and the speed and effectiveness of vaccination efforts; the rate of recovery in air travel and the aviation industry, including the future demand for commercial aircraft; and global economic conditions.
We have agreed with many of our lessees to defer rent obligations and if the financial condition of our customers remains weak or weakens further, we may grant further accommodations.
If we determine that the collectability of lessee rental payments is no longer probable (including any deferral thereof), we are then required to recognize rental revenues using a cash accounting method rather than an accrual method. In the period we conclude that collection of lease payments is no longer probable, we recognize any difference between revenue amounts recognized to date under the accrual method and payments that have been collected from the lessee, including security deposit amounts held, as a current period adjustment to lease revenue. Subsequently, we recognize revenues based on the lesser of the straight-line rental income and the lease payments collected from the lessee until such time that collection is probable, which could materially reduce our reported revenue. During the year ended December 31, 2021, we recognized rent payments from a number of our lessees using the cash method, which resulted in a decrease in basic lease rents of $296 million. If the financial condition of any additional lessees worsens, we may determine to recognize rent payments from these lessees using the cash method, which could, in future periods, further decrease basic lease rents.
Many national governments have provided financial assistance to airlines. In some cases, governments have imposed conditions on airline recipients of assistance, and governments may also impose conditions on any future assistance, such as requiring airlines to remove less environmentally friendly aircraft from their fleets or obtain concessions from their creditors, including aircraft lessors, which could adversely impact our business. Refer to “Item 3. Key Information—Risk Factors—Risks related to the financial strength of our lessees—Our financial condition is dependent, in part, on the financial strength of our lessees.”
In addition to a reduction in basic lease rents, the significant decline in air travel has resulted, and may continue to result, in lower utilization of our aircraft and engines, which is likely to reduce future supplemental maintenance rent and end-of-lease (“EOL”) compensation payable to us.
7


We are observing, as a result of the significant and sustained decline in international air passenger traffic and an expectation of a long recovery time for international air traffic, a shift by some airlines away from current technology widebody aircraft in favor of new technology widebody aircraft. If airlines continue to experience prolonged financial hardships or bankruptcies, or there are other adverse developments to the air travel industry arising from the pandemic, aircraft values may decline further, thereby increasing the likelihood that in future quarters we recognize additional impairment charges with respect to our aircraft. Refer to “Item 5. Critical accounting policies and estimates—Event-driven impairment and impairment calculation charges.” In addition, any bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization or other restructuring of our lessees may result in their grounding our flight equipment, negotiating reductions in lease rentals or altogether rejecting their leases, all of which could depress asset market value and adversely affect our ability to timely re-lease or sell flight equipment at favorable rates, if at all. Refer to “Item 3. Key Information—Risk Factors—Risks related to the financial strength of our lessees—If our lessees encounter financial difficulties and we restructure or terminate our leases, including as a result of customer reorganizations or bankruptcies, we are likely to obtain less favorable lease terms.”
While we expect that, even with current market conditions, our liquidity is more than sufficient to satisfy our anticipated operational and other business needs over the next 12 months, we cannot assure you that operating cash flow will not be lower than we expect due to, for example, higher than expected deferral arrangements or payment defaults. Although we currently have a number of sources of liquidity, in some cases the availability of these sources is contingent upon our ability to satisfy certain financial covenants. Refer to Note 15—Debt to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in this annual report. To the extent that the Covid-19 pandemic adversely affects our ability to comply with any of these covenants, it may also have the effect of exacerbating many of the other risks identified in “Item 3—Risk Factors—Risks related to our funding and liquidity—The agreements governing our debt contain various covenants that impose restrictions on us that may affect our ability to operate our business.” Even though we do not currently foresee any difficulty or inability to remain in compliance with these financial covenants, to the extent we do not do so, we may be in default under, and/or unable to draw upon, these sources of liquidity or may be required to negotiate amendments with our counterparties, the terms of which could be unfavorable to us.
Additionally, the Covid-19 pandemic has led us to adopt remote working arrangements (which remain in place in a small number of our locations), which could negatively affect our operations and may require us to implement new processes, procedures and controls to respond to further changes in our business environment. We also depend on certain key officers and employees; should any of them become ill and unable to work, it could impact our productivity and business continuity.
Global or regional public health developments, extreme weather or natural disasters or other force majeure events may adversely affect the demand for air travel, the financial condition of our lessees and the aviation industry more broadly, and ultimately our financial condition, results and cash flows.
Our international operations expose us to risks associated with unforeseen global and regional events. Epidemic diseases such as Covid-19, Ebola, measles, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), H1N1 (swine flu) and Zika virus could materially and adversely affect the overall amount of air travel. These epidemic diseases, or the fear of these diseases, could result in government-imposed travel restrictions and reduced passenger demand for travel. The occurrence of severe weather events or natural disasters, including floods, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, may make airlines unable to operate to or from certain regions or impact demand for air travel and the frequency or severity of these types of events may worsen as a result of climate change. The occurrence or outbreak of any of the above events or other force majeure events could adversely affect commercial airline traffic, reduce demand for flight equipment leases or impair the financial condition of the aviation industry, including our lessees. As a result, our lessees may not be able to satisfy their payment obligations to us. These events may also cause damage to our flight equipment, the extent of losses from which may not be fully covered by insurance. For these and other reasons, our financial results may be materially and adversely affected by the occurrence of such events.

8


The effects of terrorist attacks, war or armed hostilities may adversely affect the financial condition of the airline industry and our lessees’ ability to meet their lease payment obligations to us.
Terrorist attacks and the threat of terrorist attacks, war or armed hostilities, or the fear of such events, have historically had a negative impact on the aviation industry and could result in:
higher costs to the airlines due to the increased security measures;
decreased passenger and air cargo demand and revenue;
the imposition of “no-fly zone” or other restrictions on commercial airline traffic in certain regions, including the recent landing and overflight restrictions on Russian airlines in response to the Russian invasion of Ukraine and corresponding restrictions on airlines in the European Union, United States and other jurisdictions imposed by Russia;
uncertainty of the price and availability of jet fuel and the cost and practicability of obtaining fuel hedges;
higher financing costs and difficulty in raising the desired amount of proceeds on favorable terms, if at all;
significantly higher premiums or reduced coverage amounts for aviation insurance coverage for future claims caused by acts of war, terrorism, sabotage, hijacking and other similar perils, which may be insufficient to comply with the current requirements of aircraft lenders and lessors or applicable government regulations, or the unavailability of certain types of insurance;
reliance by aircraft lenders or lessors on government programs for specified types of aviation insurance, which may not be available at the relevant time or under which governments may not pay in a timely fashion;
inability of airlines to reduce their operating costs and conserve financial resources, taking into account the increased costs incurred as a consequence of such events;
special charges recognized by some operators, such as those related to the impairment of aircraft and engines and other long-lived assets stemming from the grounding of aircraft as a result of terrorist attacks, economic conditions and airline reorganizations; and
an airline becoming insolvent and/or ceasing operations.
Such events are likely to cause our lessees to incur higher costs and to generate lower revenues, which could result in a material adverse effect on their financial condition and liquidity, including their ability to make rental and other lease payments to us or to obtain the types and amounts of insurance we require. This in turn could lead to aircraft groundings or additional lease restructurings and repossessions, increase our cost of re-leasing or selling flight equipment, impair our ability to re-lease or otherwise dispose of flight equipment on favorable terms or at all, or reduce the proceeds we receive for our flight equipment in a disposition.
We expect the Russian invasion of Ukraine and the impact of resulting sanctions by the United States, the European Union, the United Kingdom and other countries to adversely affect our business and financial condition, results and cash flows.
On February 24, 2022, Russia launched a large-scale military invasion of Ukraine and is now engaged in a broad military conflict with Ukraine (the “Ukraine Conflict”). In response, the United States, the European Union, the United Kingdom and other countries have imposed broad, far-reaching sanctions against Russia, certain Russian persons and certain activities involving Russia or Russian persons. These sanctions include prohibitions regarding the supply of aircraft and aircraft components to Russian persons or for use in Russia, subject to certain wind-down periods.
Prior to the Ukraine Conflict, we had 135 owned aircraft on lease to Russian airlines, as well as 14 owned engines on lease to Russian airlines. We had no helicopters on lease to Russian customers. The aggregate net carrying value of our owned assets leased to Russian airlines was approximately $3.1 billion (which includes flight equipment net book value of $3.3 billion, maintenance rights assets and other lease-related assets of approximately $500 million and maintenance liabilities and other lease-related liabilities of approximately $700 million) as of December 31, 2021. Additionally, our Shannon Engine Support (“SES”) joint venture had 14 engines on lease to Russian airlines prior to the Ukraine Conflict.
In addition, we had seven owned aircraft on lease to Ukrainian airlines, with an aggregate net carrying value of approximately $125 million as of December 31, 2021. As of March 30, 2022, five of these aircraft are in temporary storage outside of Ukraine. As of March 30, 2022, the remaining two aircraft are grounded in Ukraine, but the exact status of these aircraft remains difficult to ascertain.

9


We intend to fully comply with all applicable sanctions and we have terminated the leasing of all of our aircraft and engines with Russian airlines. These terminations will result in reduced revenues and operating cash flows. Basic lease rents from our owned aircraft and engines leased to Russian airlines were approximately $33 million for the month of December 2021.
We have sought to repossess all of our aircraft and engines from Russian airlines and remove them from Russia. As of March 30, 2022, we had detained 22 of our owned aircraft and three of our 14 owned engines outside of Russia. The net carrying value as of December 31, 2021, of the owned aircraft and engines that we have removed from Russia was approximately $400 million.
It is unclear whether we will be able to repossess any additional aircraft or engines from our former Russian airline customers, or, if we do so, when we will be able to do so, and we do not know what the condition of these assets will be at the time of repossession or whether any such aircraft could be re-leased or sold. Any failure to promptly repossess our aircraft and engines will adversely affect our business and financial results. Many of these Russian airlines have continued to fly our aircraft and engines notwithstanding the leasing terminations and our repeated demands for the return of our assets. Our aircraft and engines that remain in Russia may suffer damage or deterioration due to inadequate maintenance and lack of spare parts.
As a result, we expect to recognize an impairment on our assets in Russia which have not been returned to us as early as the first quarter of 2022. While we have not yet determined the amount of this impairment, it may amount to the total net carrying value of these assets. We may also recognize an impairment on our assets that we have repossessed from Russian airlines as a result of our inability to re-lease them or otherwise.
We had letters of credit related to our aircraft and engines leased to Russian airlines as of February 24, 2022 of approximately $260 million, all confirmed by financial institutions in Western Europe. We have presented requests for payment to all of these institutions. As of March 30, 2022, we had received payments of approximately $175 million related to these letters of credit. We have initiated legal proceedings against one financial institution which rejected our payment demands in respect of certain letters of credit. We continue to work with other financial institutions toward receiving payments on the remaining letters of credit. We intend to pursue all available legal claims concerning these letters of credit but the timing and amount of any payments under these remaining letters of credit are uncertain.
Our lessees are required to provide insurance coverage with respect to leased aircraft and we are named as insureds under those policies in the event of a total loss of an aircraft or engine. We also purchase insurance which provides us with coverage when our aircraft or engines are not subject to a lease or where a lessee’s policy fails to indemnify us. We have submitted an insurance claim for approximately $3.5 billion with respect to all aircraft and engines remaining in Russia and intend to pursue all of our claims under these policies with respect to our assets leased to Russian airlines as of February 24, 2022. However, the timing and amount of any recoveries under these policies are uncertain.
In addition, we intend to pursue all available legal claims related to our assets leased to Russian airlines as of February 24, 2022. However, the timing and amount of any recoveries under any of these claims are uncertain.
It is not possible to predict the broader or longer-term consequences of the Ukraine Conflict, which could include expansion of the conflict, further sanctions, embargoes, regional instability, geopolitical shifts and adverse effects on macroeconomic conditions, security conditions, fuel prices, currency exchange rates and financial markets. Such geopolitical instability and uncertainty could have a negative impact on our ability to lease aircraft, engines and helicopters, collect payments from, and support customers in certain regions based on trade restrictions, embargoes and export control law restrictions, and logistics restrictions including closures of air space, and could materially and adversely affect our business.

10


Risks relating to our funding and liquidity
We require significant capital to fund our business.
As of December 31, 2021, we had 417 new aircraft, 30 engines and 16 helicopters on order, which will require substantial purchase contract payments. In order to meet these commitments and to maintain an adequate level of unrestricted cash, we will need to raise additional funds by accessing committed debt facilities, securing additional financing from banks or through capital markets transactions, or possibly by selling flight equipment.
If we are unable to meet our purchase commitments as they come due, we will be subject to several risks, including:
forfeiting deposits and progress payments to manufacturers and having to pay certain significant costs related to these commitments such as actual damages and legal, accounting and financial advisory expenses;
defaulting on our lease commitments, which could result in monetary damages and strained relationships with lessees;
failing to realize the benefits of purchasing and leasing such flight equipment; and
risking harm to our business reputation, which would make it more difficult to purchase and lease flight equipment in the future on agreeable terms, if at all.
Any of these events could materially and adversely affect our financial results.
To service our debt and meet our other cash needs, we will require a significant amount of cash, which may not be available.
Our ability to make payments on, and to repay or refinance, our debt, depends largely upon our operating performance, which is in part subject to factors beyond our control. In addition, our ability to borrow funds to make payments on our debt depends on our maintaining specified financial ratios and satisfying financial condition tests and other covenants in certain of the agreements governing our debt. Our business may not generate sufficient cash flow from operations and future borrowings may not be available in amounts sufficient to pay our debt and to satisfy our other liquidity needs.
If our cash flows and capital resources are insufficient to fund our debt service obligations, we may be forced to seek alternatives, such as to reduce or delay investments and flight equipment purchases, sell assets, restructure or refinance our indebtedness, or seek additional capital, including through new types of debt, equity or hybrid securities. Our ability to restructure or refinance our debt will depend on the condition of the capital markets and our financial condition at such time. Any refinancing of our debt could be at higher interest rates and might require us to comply with more onerous covenants, which could further restrict our business operations. These alternative measures may not be successful and may not permit us to meet our scheduled debt service obligations or to meet our flight equipment purchase commitments as they come due. Failure to make payments on our debt would result in a default under those agreements and could result in a default under other agreements containing cross default provisions. Moreover, the issuance of additional equity may be dilutive to existing shareholders or otherwise may be on terms not favorable to us or existing shareholders.
Despite our substantial indebtedness, we might incur significantly more debt.
Despite our current indebtedness levels, we may increase our levels of debt in the future to finance our operations, including to purchase aircraft or to meet our contractual obligations, or for any other purpose. The agreements relating to our debt, including our indentures, term loan facilities, Export Credit Agency (“ECA”)-guaranteed financings, revolving credit facilities, securitizations, other commercial bank financings, and other financings do not prohibit us from incurring additional debt. As of December 31, 2021, we had approximately $10.6 billion of undrawn lines of credit available under our revolving credit and term loan facilities and other available secured debt, subject to certain conditions, including compliance with certain financial covenants. If we increase our total indebtedness, our debt service obligations will increase, and we will become more exposed to the risks arising from our substantial level of indebtedness.
11


Our level of indebtedness, which requires significant debt service payments, could adversely impact our operating flexibility and financial results.
The principal amount of our outstanding indebtedness, which excludes debt issuance costs, debt discounts and debt premium of $344 million, was $50.5 billion as of December 31, 2021, (approximately 68% of our total assets as of December 31, 2021), and our interest payments, net of amounts capitalized, were $1.1 billion for the year ended December 31, 2021. Due to the capital-intensive nature of our business, we expect that we will incur additional indebtedness in the future and continue to maintain significant levels of indebtedness.
Our level of indebtedness:
requires a substantial portion of our cash flows from operations to be dedicated to interest and principal payments and therefore not available to fund our operations, working capital, capital expenditures, expansion, acquisitions or general corporate or other purposes;
may impair our ability to obtain additional financing on favorable terms or at all in the future;
may limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and industry; and
may make us more vulnerable to downturns in our business, our industry or the economy in general.
The agreements governing our debt contain various covenants that impose restrictions on us that may affect our ability to operate our business.
Certain of our indentures, term loan facilities, ECA-guaranteed financings, revolving credit facilities, securitizations, other commercial bank financings, and other agreements governing our debt impose operating and financial restrictions on our activities that limit our operational flexibility. Among other negative covenants customary for such financings, certain of these restrictions limit our ability to incur additional indebtedness, create liens on, sell or access certain assets, declare or pay certain dividends and distributions or enter into certain transactions, investments, acquisitions, loans, guarantees or advances. Additionally, a substantial portion of our owned aircraft are held through SPEs or finance structures that finance or refinance the aircraft through funding agreements that place restrictions on distributions of funds to us.
Agreements governing certain of our indebtedness also contain financial covenants, including requirements that we comply with certain loan-to-value, interest coverage and leverage ratios. These restrictions could impede our ability to operate our business by, among other things, limiting our ability to take advantage of financing, merger and acquisition and other corporate opportunities. Our ability to comply with these covenants may be affected by events beyond our control. Failure to comply with any of the covenants in our financing agreements would result in a default under those agreements and could result in a default under other agreements containing cross default provisions. Under these circumstances, we may have insufficient funds or other resources to satisfy all our obligations.
Changes in interest rates may increase our cost of borrowing or otherwise adversely affect our net income.
We use a mix of fixed rate and floating rate debt to finance our business. Any increase in our cost of borrowing directly impacts our net income. Our cost of borrowing is affected by the interest rates that we obtain on our debt financings, which can fluctuate based on, among other things, general market conditions, the market’s assessment of our credit risk, prevailing interest rates in the market, fluctuations in U.S. Treasury rates and other benchmark rates, changes in credit spreads or swap spreads, and the duration of the debt we issue. If interest rates increase, we will be obligated to make higher interest payments to the lenders of our floating rate debt to the extent that it is not hedged. Please refer to “Item 11—Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk—Interest rate risk” for further details on our interest rate risk. In addition, we are exposed to the credit risk that the counterparties to our derivative contracts will default on their obligations.
Decreases in interest rates may adversely affect our interest revenue on cash deposits and our lease revenue. During the year ended December 31, 2021, approximately 1.2% of our basic lease rents from flight equipment under operating leases was attributable to leases with lease rates tied to floating interest rates and approximately 98.8% was derived from leases with fixed lease rates. A decrease in interest rates would cause a decrease in our lease revenue from leases with lease rates tied to floating interest rates. We could also experience reduced lease revenue from our fixed rate leases if interest rates decrease because these are based, in part, on prevailing interest rates at the time we enter into the lease. As a result, new fixed rate leases we enter into at a time of lower interest rates may be at lower lease rates than had no such interest rate decrease occurred, adversely affecting our lease revenue.
Moreover, if interest rates were to rise sharply, we would not immediately be able to fully offset the negative impact on our net income by increasing lease rates, even if the market were able to bear the increased lease rates. Our leases are generally for multiple years with fixed lease rates over the life of the lease and, therefore, lags will exist because our lease rates with respect to a particular aircraft cannot generally be increased until the expiration of the lease.
12


Negative changes in our credit ratings may limit our ability to obtain financing or increase our borrowing costs.
Our cost of borrowing and access to the capital markets are affected by our credit ratings.
We are currently subject to periodic review by independent credit rating agencies S&P, Moody’s and Fitch, each of which currently maintains an investment grade rating with respect to us.
We cannot assure you that these credit ratings will remain in effect for any given period of time or that a rating will not be lowered, suspended or withdrawn. Any actual or anticipated changes in our credit ratings, could negatively impact our ability to obtain secured or unsecured financing, increase our borrowing costs or limit our access to the capital markets, which could adversely impact our financial results.
The discontinuation, reform or replacement of benchmark indices may negatively affect our interest rate exposure.
Interest rate benchmarks, including the London Interbank Offered Rates (“LIBOR”), are the subject of ongoing reform and, in some cases, discontinuation. The discontinuation or replacement of such benchmarks may disrupt the broader financial markets or could negatively impact our interest expense, and hedging transactions that we use in respect of floating rate instruments based on such benchmarks may not be effective to protect us against any such negative impact. On July 27, 2017, the Chief Executive of the U.K. Financial Conduct Authority (the “FCA”), which regulates LIBOR, announced that the FCA will no longer persuade or compel banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR after 2021. This has subsequently been extended to June 2023 for the major USD LIBOR tenors. We are party to certain debt instruments, derivative contracts and leases that use benchmark rates, such as LIBOR, which will require us to transition these instruments, contracts and leases to alternative reference rates in the event of their discontinuation. We cannot guarantee that we will be able to reach agreement with our lenders and other counterparties with respect to any such amendments and the replacement of an existing benchmark rate with an alternate benchmark rate may negatively impact the value of those contracts to us, expose us to additional financial, tax, legal, operational or other costs, or expose us to additional interest rate-related risks, such as different alternative reference rates applying to our assets compared to our liabilities. As of December 31, 2021, we had approximately $7.9 billion of floating rate debt outstanding that used either one-month, three-month or six-month USD LIBOR as the applicable reference rate to calculate interest on such debt, of which $6.0 billion is set to mature after June 30, 2023. As of December 31, 2021, we had approximately $6.3 billion notional amount of floating rate derivatives outstanding that used either one-month, three-month or six-month USD LIBOR. Certain of our floating rate debt and derivatives contain LIBOR transition fall-back provisions and we expect to transition to the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”) on or before June 30, 2023.

Risks relating to market demand for, and lease rates and value of flight equipment in our fleet
We may be unable to generate sufficient returns on our flight equipment investments.
Our results depend on our ability to consistently acquire strategically attractive flight equipment, continually and profitably lease and re-lease them, and finally sell or otherwise dispose of them, in order to generate returns on the investments we have made, provide cash to finance our growth and operations, and service our existing debt. Upon acquiring flight equipment, we may not be able to enter into leases that generate sufficient cash flow to justify the cost of purchase. When our leases expire or our flight equipment are returned prior to the date contemplated in the lease, we bear the risk of re-leasing, selling or parting-out the asset. Because our leases are predominantly operating leases, only a portion of the relevant flight equipment’s value is recovered by the revenues generated from the lease and we may not be able to realize such flight equipment’s residual value after lease expiration. As a result of the sanctions imposed by various governments on Russia, we have terminated the leasing of all of our aircraft and engines with Russian airlines and we now bear the risk of re-leasing, selling or parting-out the aircraft and engines that were subject to those leases and have been recovered by us from Russia. We cannot provide any assurance that the residual values of aircraft and engines that were subject to such terminated leases will be realized. Our ability to profitably purchase, lease, re-lease, sell or otherwise dispose of our aircraft and engines will depend in part on conditions in the airline industry and general market and competitive conditions at the time of purchase, lease and disposition, which are outside of our control.
13


Our business depends heavily on the level of demand for flight equipment in our fleet, which may decline as a result of changes in market conditions and the overall health of air travel.
Flight equipment are long-lived assets and aircraft demand can change over time as a result of changes in market conditions outside of our control. Customer demand for our assets is primarily driven by long-term trends in passenger air travel and air cargo demand, and is limited by airport and air traffic control infrastructure constraints. Demand is also influenced by changes in economic growth, regulation, customer profitability, fuel prices, the availability of asset financing, pricing and other competitive factors. For example, the Covid-19 pandemic has significantly affected passenger air travel worldwide, and the extent, duration and severity of the pandemic and the rate of recovery in air travel, the aviation industry and global economic conditions will impact demand for our aircraft. In addition, the imposition of more stringent regulation on air travel, including travel restrictions imposed in reaction to the Covid-19 pandemic, may adversely impact the profitability of air travel and reduce demand for our aircraft and engines. Types of regulation that could impact flight equipment demand include environmental rules, noise or emissions limitations, age constraints, trade and import and export controls, tariffs and other trade barriers. If flight equipment demand declines, lease rates and residual values of assets could be negatively impacted and we may be unable to lease our assets on favorable terms, if at all. Flight equipment values and lease rates have occasionally experienced sharp decreases in response to market conditions or otherwise.
Demand for an aircraft can also be affected by factors unique to that aircraft, including the maintenance and operating history of the airframe and engines, the compatibility of aircraft configurations and specifications with other aircraft owned by operators of that type, the number of operators using the particular type of aircraft, the availability of documentary records for the aircraft and aircraft age. The desirability of an aircraft may also be impacted by factors pertinent to the model of an aircraft, such as the performance and reliability of the specific engine type installed on a particular aircraft model, technical limitations and technical problems associated with an aircraft model or the operating histories of an aircraft model. For example, the 2019 grounding of the Boeing 737 MAX has affected demand and our ability to lease these aircraft, which, together with potential reputational damage pertaining to the aircraft model, may affect our future lease rates and residual values for these aircraft.
In addition, new aircraft types that are introduced to the market could be more attractive for the target lessees of our aircraft, increasing the supply of older aircraft in the marketplace. This may cause the retirement and obsolescence of aircraft models, decrease comparative values of aircraft based on newly competitive aircraft and reduce the availability of spare parts for older aircraft. For instance, Airbus S.A.S. (“Airbus”), The Boeing Company (“Boeing”) and Embraer S.A. (“Embraer”) have launched several new aircraft types in recent years, including the Boeing 787 Family, the Boeing 737 MAX Family, the Boeing 777X, the Airbus A320neo Family, the Airbus A330neo Family, the Airbus A350 Family, the Airbus A220 Family and the Embraer E-Jet E2 Family. These new aircraft types, and potential variants of these types, may reduce the desirability of, and have an adverse effect on residual value and future lease rates of, older aircraft types and variants. Additionally, new manufacturers may develop a narrowbody aircraft that competes with established aircraft types from Airbus, Boeing and Embraer, putting downward price pressure on, and decreasing the marketability of, aircraft from these manufacturers. The development of more fuel-efficient engines could make aircraft in our portfolio with engines that are not as fuel-efficient less attractive to potential lessees.
A decrease in demand for our flight equipment as a result of any of these factors could materially and adversely affect lease rates and residual values for our flight equipment, our ability to lease our flight equipment on favorable terms, if at all, and our financial results.
14


Manufacturer behavior may adversely affect the lease rates and value of aircraft in our fleet or our results of operations more broadly.
The manufacture and supply of commercial aircraft is concentrated among a limited number of manufacturers. Aircraft also have long delivery cycles. We rely, as a result, on these manufacturers responding early and appropriately to changes in the market environment, delivering aircraft that meet our lessees’ expectations and fulfilling contractual obligations they have to us. Failure on the part of manufacturers in relation to any of these requirements may cause us to experience:
missed or late delivery of aircraft and engines ordered by us and an inability to meet our contractual obligations to our customers, resulting in lost or delayed revenues, lower growth rates and strained customer relationships;
an inability to acquire aircraft and engines and related components on terms that will allow us to lease those aircraft and engines to customers at a profit, resulting in lower growth rates or a contraction in our aircraft portfolio;
a market environment with too many aircraft and engines available, creating downward pressure on demand for the aircraft and engines in our fleet and reduced market lease rates and sale prices;
reduced demand for a manufacturer’s aircraft due to poor customer support or reputational damage to such manufacturer, thereby reducing the demand for those aircraft or engines in our fleet and reduced market lease rates and residual aircraft values for those aircraft and engines;
a reduction in our competitiveness due to deep discounting by the aircraft or engine manufacturers, which may lead to reduced market lease rates and aircraft values and may affect our ability to remarket for lease or sell at a profit, some of the aircraft in our fleet; and
technical or other difficulties with aircraft or engines after delivery that subject aircraft to operating restrictions or groundings, reducing value and lease rates of such aircraft and our ability to lease or dispose of such aircraft on favorable terms.
For example, the market is currently experiencing oversupply due to the impacts of the Covid-19 pandemic. In the years preceding the Covid-19 pandemic, the airline industry committed to a significant number of aircraft deliveries through order placements with manufacturers, and in response, aircraft manufacturers raised their production output. In response to the Covid-19 pandemic, manufacturers have significantly reduced their production output. Considering the significant decrease in demand for air travel, these production cuts may not be sufficient to prevent continuing overcapacity. Uncertainty regarding air travel demand may also lead to a reduction in the availability of debt financing for aircraft purchases, which could increase the gap between aircraft production and demand. Any such decrease in aircraft values and lease rates, or increase in the cost or availability of funding, could materially and adversely affect our financial results.
Additionally, the reintroduction into service of the grounded Boeing 737 MAX aircraft has the potential to cause or exacerbate conditions of oversupply, especially in light of the backlog of parked inventory. This may put downward pressure on our aircraft lease rates, values and results of operations.
Risks related to the financial strength of our lessees
Our financial condition is dependent, in part, on the financial strength of our lessees.
We generate our revenue primarily from leases to airlines, and as a result we are exposed to many of the risks that airlines face. The ability of our lessees to perform their obligations depends primarily on their financial condition and cash flows, which are affected by factors outside our control. In addition to general economic and market conditions, airlines are affected by overall changes in passenger and air cargo demand, the price and availability of jet fuel, labor difficulties and costs, the availability of financial or other governmental support and governmental regulation and associated fees, including travel restrictions, restrictions on carbon emissions, environmental regulations and fly-over restrictions.
Generally, airlines with high financial leverage are more likely than airlines with stronger balance sheets to be affected, and are affected more quickly, by these factors. Such airlines are also more likely to seek operating leases.
A deterioration in the financial condition and cash flows of our lessees, including from the ongoing impacts of the Covid-19 pandemic or the Ukraine Conflict, would increase the risk that they will delay, reduce or fail to make rental payments when due. At any point in time, our lessees may be significantly in arrears. Some lessees encountering financial difficulties may seek a reduction in their lease rates or other concessions, such as a deferral of their obligations to make rent or supplemental maintenance rent payments or a decrease in their contribution toward maintenance obligations. Moreover, we may not correctly assess the credit risk of each lessee or charge lease rates that incorrectly reflect related risks. Many of our lessees are not rated investment grade by the principal U.S. rating agencies and may be more likely to suffer liquidity problems than those that are so rated.
15


Our financial condition, financial results and cash flows may be materially and adversely affected by any events adversely affecting the financial strength of our lessees.
Increases in fuel prices and fuel price volatility could affect our lessees’ ability to meet their lease payment obligations to us.
The cost of fuel represents a major expense to airlines that is not within their control, and significant increases in fuel costs or hedges that inaccurately assess the direction of fuel costs can materially and adversely affect their operating results. Historically, fuel prices have fluctuated widely depending primarily on international market conditions, geopolitical and environmental events and currency exchange rates, including events, such as natural disasters and wars, that affect fuel supply. For example, predominantly as a result of the Ukraine Conflict and resulting sanctions imposed by various governments on Russia, in early 2022 oil prices rose to their highest levels since 2008.
Due to the competitive nature of the aviation industry, operators may be unable to increase airfares in a manner that fully offsets increases in fuel costs. In addition, they may not be able to enter appropriate hedging positions to manage their exposure to fuel price fluctuations. Airlines that hedge their fuel costs may suffer adverse impacts to their profitability and liquidity from swift movements in fuel prices, if their hedge agreements require them to post cash collateral. Therefore, if for any reason fuel prices return to historically high levels or show significant volatility, our lessees are likely to incur higher costs or generate lower revenues, which may affect their ability to meet their obligations to us.
Instability in the banking system or financial markets could impair our lessees’ ability to finance their operations, which could affect their ability to comply with payment obligations to us.
Adverse changes in the global banking system or the global financial markets may have a material adverse effect on our business. Many of our lessees have expanded their airline operations through borrowings and some are highly leveraged. These lessees depend on banks and the capital markets to provide working capital and to refinance existing indebtedness. Global financial markets can be highly volatile and the availability of credit from financial markets and financial institutions can vary substantially. Events that adversely impact capital markets could lead to the imposition of stricter capital requirements on borrowers, reduce the general availability of credit or otherwise result in higher borrowing costs, limiting our lessees’ abilities to finance their operations, which could affect their ability to meet payment obligations to us.
If our lessees encounter financial difficulties and we restructure or terminate our leases, including as a result of customer reorganizations or bankruptcies, we are likely to obtain less favorable lease terms.
If a lessee delays, reduces, or fails to make rental payments when due, or has advised us that it will do so in the future, we may elect or be required to restructure or terminate the lease. In addition, in recent years, several airlines and other customers, including several of our lessees, have filed for protection under their local bankruptcy and insolvency laws, and certain airlines and other customers have gone into liquidation, and the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on air travel has caused an increase in the number of airlines and other customers filing for such protection. A restructured lease will likely contain terms that are less favorable to us. If we are unable to agree on a restructuring and we terminate the lease, we may not receive all or any payments still outstanding, and we may be unable to re-lease the flight equipment promptly and at favorable rates, if at all. Moreover, airline bankruptcies historically have led to the grounding of significant numbers of aircraft, rejection of leases and negotiated reductions in aircraft lease rentals, with the effect of depressing aircraft market values. As such, further reorganizations would adversely affect our ability to re-lease or sell aircraft at favorable rates, if at all. We have conducted restructurings and terminations in the ordinary course of our business, and we expect more will occur in the future. If we are obligated to perform a significant number of restructurings and terminations, the associated reduction in lease revenue could materially and adversely affect our financial results and cash flows.
16


Risks related to our relationship with our lessees
We have limited control over the operation of our flight equipment while they are under lease and depend on our lessees to properly maintain and insure our flight equipment.
While our flight equipment are on lease, we do not directly control their operation. Under our leases, our lessees are primarily responsible for maintaining our assets, obtaining adequate levels of insurance and complying with all governmental requirements applicable to the lessee and the flight equipment, including operational, maintenance, government agency oversight, registration requirements and airworthiness directives. We also require many of our lessees to pay us supplemental maintenance rents. Nevertheless, because we still own and hold title to the flight equipment we could be exposed to costs resulting from a lessee’s failure to properly maintain an asset under lease or be held liable for losses resulting from its operation while under lease. If a lessee fails to perform required maintenance on our asset during the term of the lease, the asset’s market value may decline or we might be required to incur maintenance and modification costs, which would result in lower revenues from its subsequent lease or sale, or the asset might be grounded. Additionally, if our lessees fail to maintain adequate insurance coverage, default in their indemnification or insurance obligations to us, or are exposed losses for which they do not have coverage, we could face increased costs from pursuing corrective action or face reductions in insurance proceeds that would otherwise be payable to us in the case of loss. If our lessees fail to meet their obligations to pay supplemental maintenance rents or EOL compensation, fail to perform required scheduled maintenance, fail to obtain and maintain insurance coverage for losses to which they are exposed, or if we are required to incur unexpected costs associated with any of the above, our financial results may be materially and adversely affected.
If our lessees fail to cooperate in returning our assets following lease terminations, we may encounter obstacles and are likely to incur significant costs and expenses conducting repossessions.
Our legal rights and the relative difficulty of repossession vary significantly depending on the jurisdiction in which our flight equipment is located and the applicable law. We may need to obtain a court order or consents for deregistration or re-export, a process that can differ substantially in different countries. Where a lessee or other operator flies only domestic routes in the jurisdiction in which the asset is registered or in which the lessee operator is based, repossessing and exporting the asset may be challenging, especially if the jurisdiction permits the lessee or the other operator to resist deregistration or export of the asset. For example, due to the Ukraine Conflict and sanctions imposed against Russia, we have sought to repossess all of our aircraft and engines from Russian airlines and remove them from Russia but we have experienced, and we anticipate that we will continue to experience, difficulties in repossessing such assets. It is unclear whether we will be able to repossess our aircraft and engines from our former Russian airline customers, or if we do so, when we will be able to do so, and we do not know what the condition of these assets will be at the time of repossession.
When a defaulting lessee is in bankruptcy, protective administration, insolvency or similar proceedings, additional limitations may apply. For example, certain jurisdictions entitle the lessee or another third-party to retain possession of the flight equipment without paying lease rent or performing all or some of the obligations under the relevant lease. Certain of our lessees are partially or wholly owned by government-related entities, which can complicate our efforts to repossess our aircraft in that government’s jurisdiction. If we encounter any of these difficulties, we may be delayed in, or prevented from, enforcing certain of our rights under a lease and in re-leasing the affected flight equipment.
When conducting a repossession, we are likely to incur significant costs and expenses that are unlikely to be recouped, including, for example, legal and regulatory expenses, taxes, lost revenue, maintenance and refurbishment and repair costs necessary to put the flight equipment in suitable condition for re-lease or sale. We may also make payments to discharge liens placed on our flight equipment by third parties and, until these liens are discharged, be restricted in our ability to repossess, release or sell our flight equipment. Although the financial obligations relating to these liens are the contractual responsibility of our lessees, if they fail to fulfill these obligations, such liens may ultimately become our responsibility and impose additional repossession costs on us. If we incur significant costs in repossessing our flight equipment, our financial results may be materially and adversely affected.
In certain countries, an engine affixed to an aircraft may become an accession to the aircraft and we may not be able to exercise our ownership rights over the engine.
Under some legal principles, an engine affixed to an aircraft may become an accession to the aircraft, whereby the ownership rights of the owner of the airframe supersede those of the owner of the engine. In such cases, where an aircraft is security for the owner’s obligations to a third-party, the security interest in the aircraft may supersede our rights as owner of the engine. As a substantial part of the value of an aircraft derives from its engines, we would suffer a substantial loss if our ability to repossess a leased engine was limited in the event of a lease default, which could materially and adversely affect our financial results.

17


Risks related to competition and the aviation industry
Competition and changes in market participants, including lessors, manufacturers and aircraft lessees, may adversely affect our business operations.
The aviation leasing industry is highly competitive. Our competitors are primarily other major aircraft leasing companies, but we may also encounter competition from emerging aircraft leasing companies that we do not currently consider our main competitors. We may also face competition from other market participants, such as airlines, aircraft manufacturers, aircraft brokers, financial institutions, including those seeking to dispose of repossessed aircraft at distressed prices and other entities that invest in aircraft and engines. Some of these competitors may have greater operating and financial resources than we do and we may not always be able to compete successfully, which could materially and adversely affect our financial results.
Over the past several years, market participants in the aviation industry have changed as a result of restructuring or bankruptcies, mergers and acquisitions, entities entering or exiting the industry or entities entering into new or different market segments. We expect similar transitions to continue to take place into the future. Changes in market participants may affect our business by, for instance, reducing competition amongst manufacturers, changing the offering of aircraft types and models in the market, reducing demand for our aircraft from lessees or increasing the competition we face for new lessees or favorable terms on our transactions. New aircraft manufacturers, such as Mitsubishi Aircraft Corporation in Japan, JSC United Aircraft Corporation in Russia and Commercial Aircraft Corporation of China, Ltd. in China could produce aircraft that compete with current offerings from Airbus, Boeing and Embraer. These changes may materially affect our business.
The financial instability of an aircraft or engine manufacturer could impact delivery of our aircraft on order and negatively affect our cash flow and results of operations.
The supply of commercial aircraft is dominated by Airbus and Boeing and a limited number of engine manufacturers. As a result, we are dependent on these manufacturers remaining in existence and financially stable to fulfill contractual obligations they have to us. Any disruption to these manufacturers’ operating abilities may cause us to experience delivery delays on our aircraft orders. Our leases contain lessee cancellation clauses related to aircraft delivery delays, typically for aircraft delays greater than one year, and our purchase agreements contain similar provisions. If there are manufacturing delays for aircraft for which we have made future lease commitments, some or all of our affected lessees could elect to terminate their lease arrangements with respect to such delayed aircraft. Any such termination could negatively affect our cash flow and results of operations.
Further, we may experience additional delivery delays and associated costs if aircraft manufacturers deliver aircraft that fail to meet our lessees’ expectations or the requirements of air travel regulators. Following the fatal accidents of two Boeing 737 MAX aircraft, the worldwide fleet of these aircraft was grounded by aviation authorities in March 2019 and production was temporarily suspended by Boeing in January 2020, resulting in ongoing delays in the delivery of our aircraft on order from Boeing. Most jurisdictions have now approved the Boeing 737 MAX return to service, including the United States, China and Europe. As of December 31, 2021, we had 43 Boeing 737 MAX aircraft delivered and on lease, and a further 67 Boeing 737 MAX aircraft on order, excluding aircraft for which we have cancellation rights. Refer to “Item 3. Key Information—Risk Factors—Risks relating to market demand for, and lease rates and value of, aircraft in our fleet—Manufacturer behavior may adversely affect the lease rates and value of aircraft in our fleet or our results of operations more broadly.”
18


Risks related to the geopolitical, regulatory and legal exposure of our business
The international operations of our business and those of our lessees expose us to geopolitical, economic and legal risks associated with a global business, including many of the economic and political risks associated with emerging markets.
We and our lessees conduct business in many countries and, as a result, we are exposed to a large number of regulatory and legal regimes. We also face uncertainty from changes in political regimes globally. Volatility in the political and economic environments associated with international markets could adversely affect our operations. Changes in international regulations, laws, taxes, export controls, tariffs, embargoes, sanctions or other restrictions on trade or travel could adversely affect the profitability of our lessees’ businesses, the operations of aircraft manufacturers or the results of our operations. For example, the Ukraine Conflict, the situation in Syria, Venezuela and Ethiopia, the Israeli/Palestinian conflict, tension over the nuclear programs of North Korea and Iran, political instability in the Middle East and North Africa, tensions and potential conflict between mainland China and Taiwan, the territorial disputes between Japan and China and the tensions in the South China Sea could lead to further instability in these regions and negative impacts on our lessees’ businesses and our results of operations. Additionally, the international distribution of our assets exposes us to risks associated with limitations on the repatriation of our assets or the expropriation of our international assets. These factors may have a material and adverse effect on our financial results.
Furthermore, we derive substantial lease revenue (approximately 54% in 2021, 53% in 2020 and 58% in 2019) from airlines in emerging market countries. Emerging market countries have less developed economies and are more vulnerable to economic and political problems and may experience significant fluctuations in gross domestic product, interest rates and currency exchange rates, as well as civil disturbances, government instability, nationalization and expropriation of private assets and the imposition of taxes or other charges by government authorities. The occurrence of any of these events could result in economic instability that adversely affects the value of our ownership interest in flight equipment subject to lease in such countries, or the ability of our lessees that serve such markets to meet their lease obligations. As a result, lessees that operate in emerging market countries may be more likely to default than lessees that operate in developed countries. In addition, legal systems in emerging market countries may be less developed, which could make it more difficult for us to enforce our legal rights in such countries. For these and other reasons, our financial results may be materially and adversely affected by economic and political developments in emerging market countries.
Existing and future litigation against us could materially and adversely affect our business, financial position, liquidity or results of operations.
We are, and from time to time in the future may be, a defendant in lawsuits relating to our business. We cannot accurately predict the ultimate outcome of any litigation due to its inherent uncertainties. These uncertainties may be increased by our exposure to different liability standards and legal systems internationally, including some that may be less developed and less predictable than those in advanced economies. An unfavorable outcome could materially and adversely affect our business, financial position, liquidity or results of operations. In addition, regardless of the outcome of any litigation, we may be required to devote substantial resources and executive time to the defense of such actions. For a description of certain pending litigation involving our business, refer to Note 30—Commitments and contingencies to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in this annual report.
Because our lessees are concentrated in certain geographical regions, we have concentrated exposure to the political and economic risks associated with those regions, particularly China.
Through our lessees and the countries in which they operate, we are exposed to the specific economic and political conditions and associated risks of those jurisdictions, including the regional impacts of the Covid-19 pandemic. These risks can include economic recessions, burdensome local regulations or, in extreme cases, increased risks of requisition of our flight equipment and risks of wide-ranging sanctions prohibiting us from leasing flight equipment in certain jurisdictions. An adverse political or economic event in any region or country in which our lessees or our flight equipment are concentrated could affect the ability of our lessees to meet their obligations to us, or expose us to various legal or political risks associated with the affected jurisdictions, all of which could have a material and adverse effect on our financial results.
19


We have a large concentration of lessees in China and therefore have increased exposure to the economic and political conditions in that country and to the increasingly adversarial relationship between China and the West. Recent and future political developments, including trade or other disputes between the U.S. and China, and other evolving policies pursued in Europe, could result in increased and unexpected regulations on trade, which could adversely impact the results of our operations. Further deterioration in China’s relationship with the West could result in the imposition of more stringent trade or travel restrictions, which would harm the operations of our lessees and could materially affect our financial results. Also, in the event that sanctions affecting the ability of aircraft lessors to conduct business in China are imposed by the United States, the European Union, the United Kingdom or other governmental authorities, whether as a result of conflict between mainland China and Taiwan or otherwise, our business in China would be materially adversely affected, which could have a material impact on our financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.
We are subject to various risks and requirements associated with transacting business in many countries.
Our international operations expose us to trade and economic sanctions, export controls and other restrictions imposed by the United States, the European Union, the United Kingdom, and other governments or organizations. For example, as a result of the Ukraine Conflict and sanctions imposed by various governments against Russia, certain Russian persons and certain activities involving Russia or Russian persons, we are now prohibited from leasing our aircraft and engines to Russian lessees. We intend to fully comply with all applicable sanctions and we have terminated the leasing of all of our aircraft and engines with Russian airlines. The U.S. Departments of Justice, Commerce, State and Treasury and other U.S. federal agencies and authorities have a broad range of civil and criminal penalties they may seek to impose against corporations and individuals for violations of economic sanctions laws, export control laws, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, and other U.S. federal statutes and regulations, including those established by the Office of Foreign Asset Control. Under these laws and regulations, the U.S. government may require export licenses, may seek to impose modifications to business practices, including cessation of business activities in sanctioned countries, and modifications to compliance programs, which may increase compliance costs, and may subject us to fines, penalties and other sanctions. A violation of any of these laws or regulations could materially and adversely impact our business, operating results, and financial condition.
We have implemented and maintain in effect policies and procedures designed to ensure compliance by us, our subsidiaries and our directors, officers, employees, consultants and agents with respect to various export control, anti-corruption, anti-terrorism and anti-money laundering laws and regulations. However, such personnel could engage in unauthorized conduct for which we may be held responsible. Violations of such laws and regulations may result in severe criminal or civil sanctions, and we may be subject to other liabilities, which could materially and adversely affect our financial results.
The General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”), which became law in the EU on May 25, 2018, regulates the ways in which businesses process personal data in Europe. There are extensive documentation obligations and transparency requirements, which may impose significant costs on us. Failure to comply with the GDPR may subject us to significant litigation or enforcement actions, fines, claims for compensation by customers and other affected individuals, damage to our reputation, orders to remedy breaches or criminal prosecutions, any of which could have a material adverse impact on our business, operating results, and financial condition. For example, under the GDPR, we could incur significant fines of up to 4% of our annual global revenue.
Our assets are subject to various environmental regulations and concerns, including those relating to climate change.
Governmental regulations regarding aircraft and engine noise and emissions levels apply based on where the relevant airframe is registered and where the aircraft is operated. For example, jurisdictions throughout the world have adopted noise regulations that require all aircraft to comply with noise level standards. In addition, the United States and the International Civil Aviation Organization (“ICAO”) have adopted a more stringent set of standards for noise levels that apply to engines manufactured or certified beginning in 2006, as well as a more stringent set of standards in respect of aircraft with a maximum certificated takeoff weight greater than or equal to 55,000 kg and aircraft with a maximum certificated takeoff weight less than 55,000 kg, effective December 31, 2017 and December 31, 2020, respectively. Currently, United States regulations do not require any phase-out of aircraft that qualify with the older standards, but the EU has established a framework for the imposition of operating limitations on aircraft that do not comply with the newer standards. These regulations could limit the economic life of certain of our aircraft and engines, reduce their value, limit our ability to lease or sell the non-compliant aircraft and engines or, if engine modifications are permitted, require us to make significant additional investments in the aircraft and engines to make them compliant.
20


In addition to more stringent noise restrictions, due to growing concerns over the risks of climate change, the United States, the EU and other jurisdictions are moving towards imposing more stringent limits on greenhouse gas emissions from aircraft engines. Although current emissions control laws generally apply to newer engines, new laws could be passed in the future that also impose limits on older engines, thereby subjecting our older engines to existing or new emissions limitations or indirect taxation. For example, the EU issued a directive in January 2009 to include aviation within the scope of its greenhouse gas emissions trading scheme (“ETS”) beginning on January 1, 2012, regardless of the engine type or age. However, the EU subsequently suspended ETS application to flights from or to non-EU countries through 2023. In October 2016, ICAO adopted the Carbon Offset and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (“CORSIA”), a global market-based scheme aimed at reducing carbon dioxide emission from international aviation that will become mandatory in 2027. At least 107 countries including the United States, have indicated that they will participate in the voluntary phase-in of CORSIA in 2022. Limitations on emissions such as ETS and CORSIA could favor younger, more fuel-efficient aircraft since they generally produce lower levels of emissions per passenger, which could adversely affect our ability to re-lease or otherwise dispose of less efficient aircraft on a timely basis, on favorable terms, or at all. This is an area of law that is rapidly changing and as of yet remains specific to certain jurisdictions. While we do not know at this time whether new emissions restrictions will be passed, and if passed what impact these laws might have on our business, any future emissions limitations or other future requirements to address climate change concerns could adversely affect us.
The airline industry also has come under increased scrutiny by the press, the public and investors regarding the impact of air travel on the environment, including emissions to the air, discharges to surface and subsurface waters, safe drinking water, aircraft noise, the management of hazardous substances, oils and waste materials and other environmental impacts related to aircraft operations. If such scrutiny results in reduced air travel or increased costs to air travel, it may affect demand for our aircraft, lessees’ ability to make rental and other lease payments and reduce the value we receive for our aircraft upon any disposition, which would negatively affect our financial condition, cash flow and results of operations. In addition, growing demand to transition to lower-carbon technologies, such as so-called sustainable aviation fuels that may be developed over time, may increase our costs or reduce demand for our aircraft or engines or airline travel more generally.
Corporate responsibility, specifically related to environmental, social and governance (“ESG”) matters, may impose additional costs and expose us to new risks.
Public ESG and sustainability reporting is becoming more broadly expected by investors, shareholders and other third parties. Certain organizations that provide corporate governance and other corporate risk information to investors and shareholders have developed, and others may in the future develop, scores and ratings to evaluate companies and investment funds based upon ESG or “sustainability” metrics. Many investment funds focus on positive ESG business practices and sustainability scores when making investments and may consider a company’s ESG or sustainability scores as a reputational or other factor in making an investment decision. In addition, investors, particularly institutional investors, use these scores to benchmark companies against their peers and if a company is perceived as lagging, these investors may engage with the company to improve ESG disclosure or performance and may also make voting decisions, or take other actions, to hold these companies and their boards of directors accountable. The level of a company’s greenhouse gas emissions is an ESG topic that is, in particular, receiving heightened attention by investors, shareholders and lawmakers. We may also face reputational damage in the event our corporate responsibility initiatives or objectives, including with respect to greenhouse gas emissions, do not meet the standards set by our investors, shareholders, lawmakers or other constituencies, or if we are unable to achieve an acceptable ESG or sustainability rating from third party rating services. A low ESG or sustainability rating by a third-party rating service could also result in the exclusion of our common stock or debt from consideration by certain investors who may elect to invest with our competition instead. Ongoing focus on corporate responsibility matters by investors and other parties as described above may impose additional costs or expose us to new risks.
Risks related to accounting and impairments
If a decline in demand for certain assets causes a decline in its projected lease rates, or if we dispose of an asset for a price that is less than its depreciated book value on our balance sheet, then we will recognize impairments or make fair value adjustments.
We test long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amounts of the assets may not be recoverable from their undiscounted cash flows. If the gross cash flow test fails, the difference between the fair value and the carrying amount of the asset is recognized as an impairment loss. Factors that may contribute to impairment charges include, but are not limited to, unfavorable airline industry trends affecting the residual values of certain flight equipment types, high fuel prices and development of more fuel-efficient aircraft shortening the useful lives of certain aircraft, management’s expectations that certain flight equipment are more likely than not to be parted-out or otherwise disposed of sooner than their expected life, and new technological developments. Cash flows supporting carrying values of older flight equipment are more dependent upon current lease contracts. In addition, we believe that residual values of older flight equipment are more exposed to non-recoverable declines in value in the current economic environment.
21


If economic conditions deteriorate, we may be required to recognize impairment losses. In that event, our estimates and assumptions regarding forecasted cash flows from our long-lived assets would need to be reassessed, including the duration of the economic downturn and the timing and strength of the pending recovery, both of which are important variables for purposes of our long-lived asset impairment tests. Any of our assumptions may prove to be inaccurate, which could adversely impact forecasted cash flows of certain long-lived assets, especially for older aircraft. If so, it is possible that there may be an event-driven impairment for other long-lived assets in the future and that any such impairment amounts may be material.
As of December 31, 2021, 469 of our owned aircraft under operating leases were 15 years of age or older. These aircraft represented approximately 13% of our total flight equipment and lease-related assets and liabilities as of December 31, 2021. Please refer to “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Critical accounting policies and estimates—Impairment charges” for a detailed description of our impairment policy.
Risks related to information technology
A cyberattack could lead to a material disruption of our IT systems or the IT systems of our third-party providers and the loss of business information, which may hinder our ability to conduct our business effectively and may result in lost revenues and additional costs.
Parts of our business depend on the secure operation of our information technology, or IT, systems and the IT systems of our third-party providers to manage, process, store and transmit information associated with aviation leasing. Like other global companies, we have, from time to time, experienced threats to our data and systems, including malware and computer virus attacks, internet network scans, systems failures and disruptions. A cyberattack that bypasses our IT security systems or the IT security systems of our third-party providers, causing an IT security breach, could lead to a material disruption of our IT systems or the IT systems of our third-party providers, as applicable, and adversely impact our daily operations and cause the loss of sensitive information, including our own proprietary information and that of our customers, suppliers and employees. Such losses could harm our reputation and result in competitive disadvantages, litigation, regulatory enforcement actions, lost revenues, additional costs and liability. While we devote substantial resources to maintaining adequate levels of cybersecurity, our resources and technical sophistication may not be adequate to prevent all types of cyberattacks.
We could suffer material damage to, or interruptions in, our IT systems or the IT systems of our third-party providers as a result of external factors, staffing shortages or difficulties in updating our existing software or developing or implementing new software.
We depend largely upon our IT systems and the IT systems of our third-party providers in the conduct of all aspects of our operations. Such systems are subject to damage or interruption from power outages, computer and telecommunications failures, computer viruses, security breaches, fire and natural disasters. Damage or interruption to these IT systems may require a significant investment to fix or replace them, and we may suffer interruptions in our operations in the interim. In addition, we are currently pursuing a number of IT-related projects that will require ongoing IT-related development and conversion of existing systems. Costs and potential problems or interruptions associated with the implementation of new or upgraded systems and technology or with maintenance or support of existing systems could also disrupt or reduce the efficiency of our operations. Any material interruptions or failures in our IT systems may have a material adverse effect on our business or results of operations.
22


Risks related to our structure and taxation
We are a public limited liability company incorporated in the Netherlands (“naamloze vennootschap” or “N.V.”) and it may be difficult to obtain or enforce judgments against us or our executive officers, some of our directors and some of our named experts in the United States.
We were incorporated under the laws of the Netherlands and, as such, the rights of holders of our ordinary shares and the civil liability of our directors will be governed by the laws of the Netherlands and our articles of association. The rights of shareholders under the laws of the Netherlands may differ from the rights of shareholders of companies incorporated in other jurisdictions. Many of our directors and executive officers and most of our assets and the assets of many of our directors are located outside the United States. In addition, our articles of association do not provide for U.S. courts as a venue for, or for the application of U.S. law to, lawsuits against us, our directors and executive officers. As a result, you may not be able to serve process on us or on such persons in the United States or obtain or enforce judgments from U.S. courts against us or them based on the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States. There is doubt as to whether the Dutch courts would enforce certain civil liabilities under U.S. securities laws in original actions and enforce claims for punitive damages.
Under our articles of association, we indemnify and hold our directors, officers and employees harmless against all claims and suits brought against them, subject to limited exceptions. Under our articles of association, to the extent allowed by law, the rights and obligations among or between us, any of our current or former directors, officers and employees and any current or former shareholder shall be governed exclusively by the laws of the Netherlands and subject to the jurisdiction of the Dutch courts, unless such rights or obligations do not relate to or arise out of their capacities listed above. Although there is doubt as to whether U.S. courts would enforce such provision in an action brought in the United States under U.S. securities laws, such provision could make judgments obtained outside of the Netherlands more difficult to enforce against our assets in the Netherlands or jurisdictions that would apply Dutch law.
We may become a passive foreign investment company (“PFIC”) for U.S. federal income tax purposes.
We do not believe we will be classified as a PFIC for 2021. We cannot yet make a determination as to whether we will be classified as a PFIC for 2022 or subsequent years. The determination as to whether a foreign corporation is a PFIC is a complex determination based on all of the relevant facts and circumstances and depends on the classification of various assets and income under PFIC rules. In our case, the determination is further complicated by the application of the PFIC rules to leasing companies and to joint ventures and financing structures common in the aviation leasing industry. It is unclear how some of these rules apply to us. Further, this determination must be tested annually and our circumstances may change in any given year. We do not intend to make decisions regarding the purchase and sale of aircraft with the specific purpose of reducing the likelihood of our becoming a PFIC. Accordingly, our business plan may result in our engaging in activities that could cause us to become a PFIC. If we are or become a PFIC, U.S. shareholders may be subject to increased U.S. federal income taxes on a sale or other disposition of our ordinary shares and on the receipt of certain distributions and will be subject to increased U.S. federal income tax reporting requirements. Refer to “Item 10. Additional Information—Taxation—U.S. tax considerations” for a more detailed discussion of the consequences to you if we are treated as a PFIC and a discussion of certain elections that may be available to mitigate the effects of that treatment. We urge you to consult your own tax advisors regarding the application of the PFIC rules to your particular circumstances.
We may become subject to income or other taxes in jurisdictions which would adversely affect our financial results.
We and our subsidiaries are subject to the income tax laws of Ireland, the Netherlands, the United States and other jurisdictions in which our subsidiaries are incorporated or based. Our effective tax rate in any period is impacted by the source and the amount of earnings among our different tax jurisdictions. Our ability to defer the payment of some level of income taxes to future periods is dependent upon the continued benefit of accelerated tax depreciation on our flight equipment in some jurisdictions, the continued deductibility of external and intercompany financing arrangements and the application of tax losses prior to their expiration in certain tax jurisdictions, among other factors. A change in the division of our earnings among our tax jurisdictions could have a material impact on our effective tax rate and our financial results. In addition, we or our subsidiaries may be subject to additional income or other taxes in these and other jurisdictions by reason of the management and control of our subsidiaries, our activities and operations, where our aircraft operate, where the lessees of our aircraft (or others in possession of our aircraft) are located or changes in tax laws or practices, regulations or accounting principles. Although we have adopted guidelines and operating procedures to ensure our subsidiaries are appropriately managed and controlled, we may be subject to such taxes in the future and such taxes may be substantial. The imposition of such taxes could have a material adverse effect on our financial results.
23


We may become subject to additional taxes in Ireland based on the extent of our operations carried on in Ireland.
Our Irish tax resident group companies are currently subject to Irish corporate income tax on trading income at a rate of 12.5%, on capital gains at 33% and on other income at 25%. We expect that substantially all of our Irish income will be treated as trading income for tax purposes in future periods. As of December 31, 2021, we had significant Irish tax losses available to carry forward against our trading income. The continued application of the 12.5% tax rate to trading income generated in our Irish tax resident group companies and the ability to carry forward Irish tax losses to offset future taxable trading income depends in part on the extent and nature of activities carried on in Ireland, both in the past and in the future.
We may fail to qualify for benefits under one or more tax treaties.
We do not expect that our subsidiaries located outside of the United States will have any material U.S. federal income tax liability by reason of activities we carry out in the United States and the lease of assets to lessees that operate in the United States. This conclusion will depend, in part, on continued qualification for the benefits of income tax treaties between the United States and other countries in which we are subject to tax (particularly Ireland). That, in turn, may depend on, among other factors, the nature and level of activities carried on by us and our subsidiaries in each jurisdiction, the identity of the owners of equity interests in subsidiaries that are not wholly owned and the identities of the direct and indirect owners of our indebtedness.
The nature of our activities may be such that our subsidiaries may not continue to qualify for the benefits under income tax treaties with the United States and that may not otherwise qualify for treaty benefits. Failure to so qualify could result in the imposition of U.S. federal and state taxes, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial results.
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development’s (“OECD”) Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (“BEPS”) initiative.
The OECD announced an initiative on January 29, 2019, to create an international consensus on new rules (referred to as “BEPS 2.0”) for the framework governing international taxation, which was supported by the publication of the Pillar One and Pillar Two Blueprint Reports on October 12, 2020. On October 8, 2021, 136 countries, including Ireland, approved a statement, known as the OECD BEPS Inclusive Framework (“IF”), providing a framework for BEPS 2.0, which builds upon the Blueprints and a prior iteration of the IF signed by 130 countries on July 1, 2021. The revised Pillar Two Blueprint includes a global minimum effective tax rate of 15% for groups with a global turnover in excess of €750 million, subject to certain exclusions. The OECD published detailed rules to assist in the implementation of the Pillar 2 rules on December 20, 2021 These detailed rules should allow some countries to introduce the Pillar 2 rules into domestic legislation during the course of 2022 (to be effective 2023 at the earliest). As noted above, the EU intends to implement the Pillar 2 measures by way of a Directive. It is this Directive which, if it enters into force, will ultimately be transposed into Irish domestic legislation. On December 22, 2021, the European Commission published a proposed EU directive to incorporate the Pillar 2 tax rules into EU law. Further publications in relation to this are expected from the OECD and the EU in the coming months. Although it is difficult to determine the degree to which these changes may result in an increase in our effective tax rate and cash tax liabilities in future periods, these developments make it more likely that this initiative will have an adverse impact on our effective tax rate and cash tax liabilities in future periods.
The EU Anti-tax Avoidance proposals may impact our effective rate of tax in future periods.
Irish tax law will be subject to changes as a result of the implementation of the EU Anti-Tax Avoidance Directive (“EU ATAD”) and the amending Directive (“EU ATAD 2”). One such change will be the implementation of a restriction on the tax deductibility of interest payments. As currently proposed, the EU ATAD would restrict the tax deductibility of net interest expense to 30% of earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortization (“EBITDA”) or possibly higher if the third-party group interest expense ratio to group EBITDA is higher. As currently proposed, the interest limitation legislation in Ireland contains certain provisions which allow for a portion of operating lease income to be treated as interest. Further guidance on the proposed legislation is expected. The exact content of this guidance could impact our ability to claim a tax deduction for interest payments on debt instruments. The interest limitation rules apply to accounting periods commencing on or after January 1, 2022.
On December 22, 2021, the European Commission issued a proposal for a Council Directive laying down rules to prevent the misuse of shell entities for tax purposes within the EU (“EU ATAD 3”). Whilst EU ATAD 3 is expected to be adopted and published into EU member states’ national laws by June 30, 2023, and come into effect as of January 1, 2024, there is considerable uncertainty surrounding the development of the proposal and its implementation. The proposal could result in additional reporting and disclosure obligations.
24


Item 4.    Information on the Company
Business overview
Global leader in aviation leasing
We are the global leader in aviation leasing with a portfolio consisting of 3,701 aircraft, engines and helicopters, that were owned, on order or managed as of December 31, 2021. We provide a wide range of assets for lease, including narrowbody and widebody aircraft, regional jets, freighters, engines and helicopters. We focus on acquiring in-demand flight equipment at attractive prices, funding them efficiently, hedging interest rate risk prudently and using our platform to deploy these assets with the objective of delivering superior risk-adjusted returns. We believe that by applying our expertise, we will be able to identify and execute on a broad range of market opportunities that we expect will generate attractive returns for our investors. We have the infrastructure, expertise and resources to execute a large number of diverse transactions in a variety of market conditions. Our teams of dedicated marketing and asset trading professionals have been successful in leasing and managing our asset portfolio. During the year ended December 31, 2021, we executed 438 aviation asset transactions.
We have an extensive track record of successfully acquiring and integrating companies, including the acquisition of Genesis Lease in 2010 and the acquisition of ILFC in 2014. The acquisition of ILFC and the GECAS Transaction are the two largest transactions in the history of aviation leasing. We believe that our ability to successfully identify, acquire and integrate companies is a key competitive advantage.

Aircraft leasing

AerCap is the global leader in aircraft leasing, leasing to customers in every major geographical region. As of December 31, 2021, we owned 1,756 aircraft and managed 196 aircraft and had 417 new aircraft on order. As of December 31, 2021, the average age of our owned aircraft fleet, weighted by net book value, was 7.1 years. During the year ended December 31, 2021, our weighted average owned aircraft utilization rate was 94%, calculated based on the number of days each aircraft was on lease during the year, weighted by the net book value of the aircraft.
AerCap Cargo is a global leader in the air cargo market, with more than 25 years’ experience and a global fleet of over 100 aircraft that are owned, serviced or committed for conversion. AerCap Cargo provides 12 types of modern narrowbody and widebody cargo aircraft to approximately 20 customers around the world, including freight forwarders, express delivery and cargo operators. AerCap Cargo also plays a developmental role in the provision of new cargo options, including the “Big Twin” freighter program between AerCap Cargo and Israel Aerospace Industries, which involves the conversion of the Boeing 777-300ER aircraft into long-haul large-capacity freighters. AerCap Cargo was also involved in the development of the Boeing 767-300BDSF as well as the Boeing 737 Classic freighter conversion programs. AerCap Cargo’s largest customers are Amazon, Maersk and ASL Aviation.
Engine leasing
AerCap is the world’s largest engine leasing company, with over 900 owned and managed engines (including engines owned by our SES joint venture) with over 75 customers. Our owned engine portfolio is comprised almost entirely of General Electric and CFM International engines, the most liquid engine types that power the world’s most popular and in-demand aircraft, including Airbus A320 and A320neo Family aircraft and Boeing 737, Boeing 787, and Boeing 737 MAX aircraft.
We have longstanding and deep relationships with two key engine original equipment manufacturers, GE Aviation and CFM International. We manage the global spare engine pool for GE Aviation, and our joint venture SES manages the global spare engine pool for CFM International, in each case under a long-term management agreement. The two largest customers of our engine leasing business are GE Aviation and SES, representing over 50% of the net book value of our owned engine portfolio. AerCap and GE Aviation agreed to continue their relationship following completion of the GECAS Transaction. In 2021, AerCap and Safran Aircraft Engines, the French aerospace manufacturer, entered into a 20-year joint venture agreement regarding SES.
25


Helicopter leasing
The Milestone Aviation Group (“Milestone”) is the world’s leading helicopter leasing and financing company with 355 owned or on order helicopters as of December 31, 2021. Milestone partners with helicopter operators worldwide, providing a wide array of financial and productivity solutions, including operating leases, purchase and leasebacks, secured debt financing, engine leasing and fleet advisory services. Milestone supports over 40 customers in more than 35 countries serving a variety of industries, including offshore oil and gas, search and rescue, emergency medical services, police surveillance, mining and other utility missions. Milestone’s largest customers are CHC Helicopters, Bristow Helicopters, Saudi Aramco and Babcock International.
AerCap Materials
AerCap Materials is a global distributor of airframe and engine parts for leading commercial aircraft and engine manufacturers. Since its founding as the Memphis Group in 1971, it has provided quality products and services ranging from spares distribution, engine components, consignment and acquisition. AerCap Materials has its own dismantlement facility located in Greenwood, Mississippi. AerCap Materials has a large inventory of aircraft parts to support mid-life and new-generation aircraft and provides ready access to support various aircraft types, including Boeing 737NG, Boeing 777, Embraer, and A320/A320neo Family aircraft.
Aviation leases and transactions
We lease most of our flight equipment to customers under operating leases. Under these leases, the lessee is responsible for the maintenance and servicing of the equipment during the lease term and we receive the benefit, and assume the risks, of the residual value of the equipment at the end of the lease. Many operators lease flight equipment under operating leases as this reduces their capital requirements and costs and affords them flexibility to manage their fleet more efficiently as flight equipment assets are returned over time. Since the 1970s and the creation of aircraft leasing pioneers Guinness Peat Aviation (“GPA”) and International Lease Finance Corporation (“ILFC”), the world’s airlines have increasingly turned to operating leases to meet their aircraft needs. We serve approximately 300 customers around the world with comprehensive fleet solutions. Our relationships with these customers help us place new flight equipment and remarket existing flight equipment.
Over the life of our flight equipment, we seek to increase the returns on our investments by managing the lease rates, time off-lease and financing and maintenance costs, and by carefully timing their sale. Our current operating leases have initial terms ranging in length up to approximately 16 years. By varying our lease terms, we mitigate the effects of changes in cyclical market conditions at the time aircraft become eligible for re-lease.
Well in advance of the expiration of an operating lease, we prioritize entering into a lease extension with the then-current operator. This reduces our risk of aircraft downtime as well as aircraft transition costs. The terms of our lease extensions reflect the market conditions at the time and typically contain different terms from the original lease. Should a lessee not be interested in extending a lease, or if we believe we can obtain a more favorable return on the aircraft, we will explore other options, including the sale of the asset. If we enter into a lease agreement for the same asset with a different lessee, we generally do so well in advance of the scheduled return date of the asset. When the asset is returned, maintenance work may be required before transition to the next lessee.
Our extensive experience, global reach and operating capabilities allow us to rapidly complete numerous aviation transactions, which enables us to increase the returns on our flight equipment investments by minimizing any time that our assets are not generating revenue for us.
26


The following table provides details regarding the aircraft, engine and helicopter transactions we executed during the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019. The trends shown in the table reflect the execution of the various elements of our leasing strategy for our owned and managed portfolio, as described further below:
Year Ended December 31,
2021 (a) 2020 2019 Total
Owned portfolio
New leases on new assets 45  10  54  109 
New leases on used assets 107  12  37  156 
Extensions of lease contracts 131  67  92  290 
New asset purchases 58  36  65  159 
Asset sales and part-outs (b) 56  40  88  184 
Managed portfolio
New leases on used assets 14  25 
Extensions of lease contracts 14  20 
New asset purchases —  — 
Asset sales and part-outs 20 
Total transactions 438  179  353  970 
(a) Does not include GECAS transactions executed prior to the Closing Date.
(b) Disassembly of an aircraft for the sale of its parts.
We perform a review of all of our prospective lessees, which generally includes reviewing financial statements, business plans, cash flow projections, maintenance capabilities, operational performance histories, hedging arrangements for fuel, foreign currency and interest rates and relevant regulatory approvals and documentation. We perform on-site credit reviews for new lessees, which typically include extensive discussions with the prospective lessee’s management before we enter into a new lease. We also evaluate the jurisdiction in which the lessee operates to ensure we are in compliance with any regulations and evaluate our ability to repossess our assets in the event of a lessee default. Depending on the credit quality and financial condition of the lessee, we may require the lessee to obtain guarantees or other financial support from an acceptable financial institution or other third parties.
We typically require our lessees to provide a security deposit for their performance under a lease, including the return of the leased asset in the specified maintenance condition at the expiration of the lease.
All of our lessees are responsible for the maintenance and repair of the leased flight equipment as well as other operating costs during the lease term. Based on the credit quality of the lessee, we require some of our lessees to pay supplemental maintenance rents to cover major scheduled maintenance costs. If a lessee pays supplemental maintenance rents, we reimburse them for their maintenance events (as defined in the lease) up to the amount of their supplemental maintenance rent payments. Under the terms of our leases, at lease expiration, we retain excess maintenance rents to the extent that a lessee has paid us more supplemental maintenance rents than we have reimbursed them for their maintenance events. In most lease contracts that do not require the payment of supplemental maintenance rents, the lessee is generally required to redeliver the leased asset in a similar maintenance condition (normal wear and tear excepted) as when accepted under the lease. To the extent that the redelivery condition is different from the acceptance condition, we generally receive cash compensation for the value difference at the time of redelivery. As of December 31, 2021 and 2020, approximately 34% and 35%, respectively, of our owned aircraft leases provided for supplemental maintenance rental payments.
We require the lessee to compensate us if the aircraft is not in the required condition upon redelivery. All of our leases contain provisions regarding our remedies and rights in the event of default by the lessee, and also include specific provisions regarding the required condition of the leased asset upon its redelivery.
Our lessees are also responsible for compliance with all applicable laws and regulations governing the leased asset and all related costs. We require our lessees to comply with either the FAA, EASA or their equivalent standards in other jurisdictions.
27


During the term of our leases, some of our lessees may experience financial difficulties resulting in the need to restructure their leases. Generally, our restructurings can involve a number of possible changes to the lease terms, including the voluntary termination of leases prior to their scheduled expiration, the arrangement of subleases from the primary lessee to a sublessee, the rescheduling of lease payments and the exchange of lease payments for other consideration. In some cases, we may repossess a leased asset and, in those cases, we usually export the leased asset from the lessee’s jurisdiction to prepare it for remarketing. In the majority of repossessions, we obtain the lessee’s cooperation and the return and export of the leased asset are completed without significant delay. In some repossessions, however, our lessees may not cooperate in returning leased assets and we may be required to take legal action. In connection with the repossession of an asset, we may be required to settle claims on such asset or to which the lessee is subject, including outstanding liens on the repossessed asset. Refer to “Item 3. Key Information—Risk Factors—Risks related to our relationship with our lessees—If our lessees fail to cooperate in returning our assets following lease terminations, we may encounter obstacles and are likely to incur significant costs and expenses conducting repossessions” for a discussion of how repossessions may affect our financial results.
Scheduled lease expirations
The following table presents the scheduled lease expirations (for the minimum non-cancelable period) for our owned aircraft under operating leases by aircraft type as of December 31, 2021. The table does not give effect to contracted unexercised lease extension options, aircraft on finance leases, lease extensions or re-leases that are subject to a letter of intent, aircraft sales that have been contracted or are subject to a letter of intent, or designations of a certain aircraft for sale or part-out.
Aircraft type 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 2031 Thereafter Total
Passenger Aircraft 123  92  151  130  165  138  81  82  94  106  212  1,374 
Airbus A220 Family —  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  — 
Airbus A320 Family 59  52  68  55  55  55  31  398 
Airbus A320neo Family —  —  —  11  42  49  62  126  308 
Airbus A330 13  11  —  —  61 
Airbus A350 —  —  —  —  —  15  44 
Boeing 737 MAX —  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  16  24  42 
Boeing 737NG 20  18  41  45  73  42  12  —  12  268 
Boeing 777-200ER —  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  10 
Boeing 777-300 / 300ER —  49 
Boeing 787 —  11  16  15  18  19  99 
Embraer E190 / E195 / E2 34 
Other 16  15  —  —  —  —  60 
Freighter Aircraft 2  3  2  2  2  6  9  10  17  2  2  57 
Boeing 737 —  10  17  44 
Boeing 747 / 767 / 777 —  —  —  —  —  13 
Total (a) (b) 125  95  153  132  167  144  90  92  111  108  214  1,431 
(a)As of December 31, 2021, scheduled lease expirations through the end of 2023 represented less than 6% of the aggregate net book value of our fleet. As of March 25, 2022, 44 of the 125 aircraft with leases expiring in 2022 have been re-leased, have had leases extended, or have been designated for sale or part-out.
(b)Includes 46 aircraft that were off-lease and under commitment for re-lease as of December 31, 2021.

28


Principal markets and customers
The following table presents the percentage of lease revenue of our owned portfolio from our top five lessees for the year ended December 31, 2021:
Lessee Percentage of 2021 lease revenue
American Airlines 7.6  %
China Southern Airlines 7.1  %
Air France 4.9  %
Azul Airlines 4.7  %
Ethiopian Airlines 3.2  %
Total 27.5  %
We lease our aircraft to lessees located in every major geographical region. The following table presents the percentage of our total lease revenue by region based on our lessee’s principal place of business for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019:
Year Ended December 31,
Region 2021 2020 2019
Asia/Pacific/Russia 36  % 38  % 38  %
Europe 26  % 27  % 28  %
United States/Canada/Caribbean 16  % 14  % 13  %
Latin America 12  % 11  % 11  %
Africa/Middle East 10  % 10  % 10  %
Total 100  % 100  % 100  %
For further geographic information on our total lease revenue and long-lived assets, refer to Note 21—Geographic information to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in this annual report.

29


Aircraft and engine services
We provide aircraft and engine asset management and corporate services to securitization vehicles, joint ventures and other third parties. As of December 31, 2021, we had asset management servicing contracts with 22 parties that owned 196 aircraft and 221 engines. Since we have an established operating system to manage our own aircraft and engines, the incremental cost of providing asset management services to securitization vehicles, joint ventures and third parties is limited. Our primary aircraft and engine asset management activities include:
remarketing aircraft and engines for lease or sale;
collecting rental and supplemental maintenance rent payments, monitoring aircraft maintenance, monitoring and enforcing contract compliance and accepting delivery and redelivery of aircraft and engines;
conducting ongoing lessee financial performance reviews;
periodically inspecting the leased aircraft and engines;
coordinating technical modifications to aircraft to meet new lessee requirements;
conducting restructuring negotiations in connection with lease defaults;
repossessing aircraft and engines;
arranging and monitoring insurance coverage;
registering and de-registering aircraft;
arranging for aircraft and engine valuations; and
providing market research.
We charge fees for our aircraft and engine management services based on a mixture of fixed and rental-based amounts, and we also receive performance-based fees related to the managed aircraft or engine lease revenues or sale proceeds.
We also provide corporate administrative and cash management services to securitization vehicles and joint ventures. We currently have corporate administration and/or cash management service contracts with eight parties. Our corporate administrative services consist primarily of accounting and corporate secretarial services, including the preparation of budgets and financial statements. Cash management services consist primarily of treasury services such as the financing, refinancing, hedging and ongoing cash management of these companies.
Aviation parts and supply chain
Through AerCap Materials, Inc. (“AerCap Materials”), we provide airframe and engine parts and supply chain solutions and we disassemble aircraft and engines into parts. AerCap Materials sells airframe parts to airlines, maintenance, repair and overhaul service providers, and aircraft parts distributors.

30


Our business strategy
We develop and grow our aviation leasing business by executing on our focused business strategy, the key components of which are as follows:
Manage the profitability of our flight equipment portfolio
Our ability to profitably manage flight equipment throughout their lifecycle depends, in part, on our ability to successfully source acquisition opportunities of new and used flight equipment at favorable terms, as well as our ability to secure long-term funding for such acquisitions, lease flight equipment at profitable rates, minimize downtime between leases and associated maintenance expenses and opportunistically sell aircraft. We manage the long-term profitability of our flight equipment portfolio by:
purchasing flight equipment directly from manufacturers;
entering into purchase and leaseback transactions with airlines;
using our global customer relationships to obtain favorable lease terms for flight equipment and maximizing utilization;
maintaining diverse sources of global funding;
optimizing our portfolio by selling flight equipment; and
providing management services to securitization vehicles, our joint ventures and other aircraft owners at limited incremental cost to us.
Efficiently manage our liquidity
We analyze sources of financing based on pricing and other terms and conditions in order to optimize the return on our investments. We have the ability to access a broad range of liquidity sources globally. In 2021, we raised $30.5 billion of financing, including note issuances in the capital markets, bank debt and revolving credit facilities, $24 billion of which was for the purpose of financing the GECAS Transaction.
We have access to liquidity in the form of our revolving credit facilities and our term loan facilities, which provide us with flexibility in raising capital and enable us to deploy capital rapidly to accretive aircraft purchase opportunities that may arise. As of December 31, 2021, we had $10.6 billion of undrawn lines of credit available under our revolving credit and term loan facilities and other available secured debt and $1.7 billion of unrestricted cash. We strive to maintain a diverse financing strategy, both in terms of capital providers and structure, through the use of bank debt, note issuance and export credit, including ECA-guaranteed loans, in order to maximize our financial flexibility. We also leverage our longstanding relationships with major aircraft financiers and lenders to secure access to capital. In addition, we attempt to maximize our operating cash flows and continue to pursue the sale of flight equipment to generate additional cash flows. Refer to Note 15—Debt to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in this annual report for a detailed description of our outstanding indebtedness.
Manage our flight equipment portfolio
We intend to maintain an attractive portfolio of in-demand flight equipment by acquiring new flight equipment directly from manufacturers, executing purchase and leaseback transactions with airlines, assisting airlines with refleetings and pursuing other opportunistic transactions. We rely on our experienced team of portfolio management professionals to identify and purchase assets we believe are being offered at attractive prices or that we believe will experience an increase in demand over a prolonged period of time. In addition, we intend to continue to rebalance our portfolio through sales to maintain the appropriate mix of flight equipment by customer concentration, asset, age and type.
31


Maintain a diversified and satisfied customer base
We operate our business on a global basis, leasing flight equipment to customers in every major geographical region. We have active customer relationships with approximately 300 customers around the world. These customer relationships are either with existing customers or airlines with which we maintain regular dialogue in relation to potential transaction opportunities. Our relationships with these airlines help us place new flight equipment and remarket existing flight equipment. We monitor our lessee exposure concentrations by both customer and country jurisdiction and intend to maintain a well-diversified customer base. We believe we offer a quality product, both in terms of assets and service, to all of our customers. We have successfully worked with many customers to find mutually beneficial solutions to operational and financial challenges. We believe we maintain excellent relations with our customers. We have been able to achieve a high utilization rate on our aviation assets as a result of our customer reach, quality product offering and strong portfolio management capabilities.
Allocate capital efficiently
We seek to deploy our capital efficiently to provide the best long-term returns for our investors. We have a broad range of options for deployment of capital, including investment in flight equipment, repayment of debt, mergers and acquisitions and the return of capital to shareholders. We have deployed our capital across all of these areas in the past and will continue to seek opportunities to do so in the future.
Joint ventures
We conduct some of our business through joint ventures. The joint venture arrangements allow us to obtain stable servicing revenues and diversify our exposure to the economic risks related to aircraft and engines.
Shannon Engine Support Ltd
Following the GECAS Transaction, SES is a joint venture 50% owned by us and 50% owned by Safran Aircraft Engines. SES is headquartered in Shannon, Ireland, with marketing offices in Beijing, China and Budapest, Hungary. SES offers spare engine solutions to CFM International operators, including guaranteed pool access, short-term and long-term leases, trading and exchanges, all of which can be structured and combined to meet an individual airline’s fleet requirements. SES’s spare engine pools are located at certified MRO facilities around the world, close to international logistics hubs, to easily support airlines operating CFM56 and LEAP powered aircraft. We account for our investment in SES under the equity method of accounting.
Refer to Note 10—Associated companies to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in this annual report for further details on our joint ventures.
Relationship with Airbus, Boeing and other manufacturers
We are one of the largest customers of Airbus and Boeing measured by deliveries of aircraft through 2021 and our order backlog. We were also the launch customer of the Embraer E2 program. We are also among the largest purchasers of engines from each of CFM International, GE Aviation, International Aero Engines, Pratt & Whitney and Rolls-Royce. These extensive manufacturer relationships and the scale of our business enable us to place large orders with favorable pricing and delivery terms. In addition, these strategic relationships with manufacturers and market knowledge allow us to participate in new aircraft designs, which gives us increased confidence in our airframe and engine selections. AerCap cooperates broadly with manufacturers seeking mutually beneficial opportunities.
Competition
The aviation leasing and sales business is highly competitive, and we face competition from other aviation leasing companies, airlines, aviation manufacturers, aviation brokers and financial institutions. Competition for a leasing transaction is based on a number of factors, including delivery dates, lease rates, term of lease, other lease provisions, aircraft condition and the availability in the market place of the types of aircraft that can meet customer requirements. As a result of our geographical reach, diverse aircraft portfolio and success in remarketing our aircraft, we believe we are a strong competitor in all of these areas.
32


Insurance
Our lessees are required under our leases to bear responsibility, through an operational indemnity subject to customary exclusions, and to carry insurance for any liabilities arising out of the operation of our flight equipment, including any liabilities for death or injury to persons and damage to property that ordinarily would attach to the operator of the asset.
In addition, our lessees are required to carry other types of insurance that are customary in the air transportation industry, including hull all risks insurance for both the aircraft and each engine whether or not installed on our aircraft (in each case, at a value stipulated in the relevant lease which typically exceeds the aircraft net book value by 10%) and hull war risks insurance covering risks such as hijacking and terrorism and, where permitted, including confiscation, expropriation, nationalization and seizure (subject to adjustment or fleet or policy aggregate limits in certain circumstances and customary exclusions). Our lessees are also required to carry aircraft spares insurance and aircraft third party liability insurance, in each case subject to customary deductibles and exclusions. We are named as an additional insured on liability insurance policies carried by our lessees, and we or our lenders are designated as a loss payee in the event of a total loss of an asset. We monitor the compliance by our lessees with the insurance provisions of our leases by securing confirmation of coverage from the lessees’ insurance brokers.
We also purchase insurance which provides us with coverage when our assets are not subject to a lease or where a lessee’s policy fails to indemnify us. In addition, we carry customary insurance for our property, which is subject to customary deductibles, limits and exclusions. Insurance experts advise and make recommendations to us as to the appropriate amount of insurance coverage that we should obtain.
Regulation
While the air transportation industry is highly regulated, we generally are not directly subject to most of these regulations, as we do not operate our assets. Our lessees are subject, however, to extensive regulation under the laws of the jurisdictions in which they are registered and in which they operate. These regulations, among other things, govern the registration, operation and maintenance of our assets. Most of our aircraft are registered in the jurisdiction in which the lessee of the aircraft is certified as an air operator. Both our aircraft and engines are subject to the airworthiness and other standards imposed by our lessees’ jurisdictions of operation. Laws affecting the airworthiness of flight equipment are generally designed to ensure that all aircraft, engines and related equipment are continuously maintained in proper condition to enable safe operation of the aircraft. Most countries’ aviation laws require aircraft and engines to be maintained under an approved maintenance program with defined procedures and intervals for inspection, maintenance and repair.
In October 2016, ICAO adopted CORSIA, a global market-based scheme aimed at reducing carbon dioxide emission from international aviation that will become mandatory in 2027. At least 107 countries including the United States, have indicated that they will participate in the voluntary phase-in of CORSIA in 2022. Limitations on emissions such as ETS and CORSIA could favor younger, more fuel-efficient aircraft since they generally produce lower levels of emissions per passenger, which could adversely affect our ability to re-lease or otherwise dispose of less efficient aircraft on a timely basis, on favorable terms, or at all. This is an area of law that is rapidly changing and as of yet remains specific to certain jurisdictions. While we do not know at this time whether new emissions restrictions will be passed, and if passed what impact these laws might have on our business, any future emissions limitations or other future requirements to address climate change concerns could adversely affect us.
In addition, under our leases, we may be required, in some instances, to obtain specific licenses, consents or approvals for different aspects of the leases. These required items include consents from governmental or regulatory authorities for certain payments under the leases and for the import, re-export or deregistration of the leased assets. Also, to perform some of our cash management services and insurance services from Ireland under our management arrangements with our joint ventures and securitization entities, we are required to have a license from the Irish regulatory authorities, which we have obtained.
The United States, among other jurisdictions, regulates the export of goods, software, technology, and military items from the United States. In addition to the Office of Foreign Assets Control, two principal U.S. Government agencies have regulatory authority in this area. The U.S. Department of State, Directorate of Defense Trade Controls (“DDTC”) administers the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (“ITAR”) and the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Industry and Security administers the Export Administration Regulations (“EAR”).
33


ITAR and EAR compliance are an integral part of AerCap compliance activities. As a result of the GECAS Transaction, Milestone Aviation, a helicopter operating lessor which engages in defense trade activities, became a wholly-owned subsidiary of AerCap. While our fleet is comprised of civil helicopters, certain of the helicopters (generally helicopters configured for search and rescue (“SAR”) or police services missions) are equipped with controlled equipment covered by active ITAR licenses. In view of our defense trade activities, The Milestone Aviation Group LLC is registered with DDTC as an exporter and broker under ITAR. The controlled equipment in our fleet may require prior authorizations to be exported to certain jurisdictions. Any failures by us or our customers or suppliers to comply with these laws and regulations could result in civil or criminal penalties, fines, investigations, adverse publicity or restrictions on its ability to continue to engage in business activities involving controlled equipment, and repeat failures could carry more significant penalties. Any changes in export or sanctions regulations may further restrict business activities involving controlled equipment. The length of time required by the licensing processes can vary, potentially delaying helicopter lease transactions and the recognition of the corresponding revenue.
Please refer to “Item 3. Key Information—Risk Factors—Risks related to the geopolitical, regulatory and legal exposure of our business—We are subject to various risks and requirements associated with transacting business in many countries” and “Item 3. Key Information—Risk Factors—Risks related to the geopolitical, regulatory and legal exposure of our business—Our assets are subject to various environmental regulations and concerns,” for a detailed discussion of government sanctions, export controls and other regulations that could affect our business.
Litigation
Please refer to Note 30—Commitments and contingencies to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in this annual report for a detailed description of material litigation to which we are a party.
Trademarks
We have registered the “AerCap” name with the European Union Intellectual Property Office and the United States Patent and Trademark Office, as well as filed the “AerCap” trademark with the World Intellectual Property Organization International (Madrid) Registry and various local trademark authorities. The Milestone Aviation Group LLC has registered the “Milestone” trademark with the United States Patent and Trademark Office, the European Union Intellectual Property Office, and various local trademark authorities.
Culture and values
We strive to conduct our business with integrity and in an honest and responsible manner and to build and maintain long-term, mutually beneficial relationships with our customers, suppliers, shareholders, employees and other stakeholders. These values are further specified in our code of conduct and our ethics-related compliance policies, procedures, trainings and programs. Ethical behavior is strongly promoted by the management team. The Company has an excellent track record in relation to ethics and compliance. These ethical values are reflected in the Company’s long-term strategy and our way of doing business.
Sustainability and community
During 2021, the Board of Directors discussed and reviewed our approach to environmental, social and governance (“ESG”) related topics and other values that contribute to a culture focused on long-term value creation. In April 2021, we published a new ESG report, which was prepared in accordance with the Global Reporting Initiative Standards: Core option, which is publicly available on our website and not incorporated by reference into this annual report. The report sets forth in detail our commitment to growing our business in a responsible and sustainable way. In December 2021, our Board of Directors established an ESG Committee, which aims to enhance AerCap’s governance of ESG-related risks and opportunities and reflects AerCap’s aspiration to be a leader in this space. The committee comprises three board-level independent directors and members of the AerCap senior leadership team. These individuals have relevant experience in areas such as governance, sustainability, energy efficiency, charitable outreach, financial reporting and reputational risk management. This approach is designed to provide dedicated oversight to ESG issues at the highest level.

Renewing our aircraft portfolio through the acquisition of new, modern technology aircraft while disposing of older aircraft has a positive impact on the environment, as these new technology aircraft produce significantly lower emissions than older aircraft and engines, thus helping AerCap and our airline customers to reduce their environmental footprint. AerCap is committed to the efficient use of resources and the reduction of unnecessary waste. Our head office in Dublin has been certified for sustainability in the areas of building materials, energy and water use and accessibility. Our office buildings in Los Angeles and Singapore hold similar green building certifications. The Company has invested resources to improve greenhouse gas emissions and corresponding mitigating initiatives.
34


Our Board of Directors along with members of the AerCap senior leadership team oversee our human capital management. We have zero tolerance of human rights violations, including modern day slavery, child labor and human trafficking, and we monitor for occurrences of these both in our operations and through our supply chain. We have a diverse workforce with employees from over 25 countries around the world. We align our non-discrimination policies with local laws in the locations where we operate, and we see great value in the diversity of cultural, ethnic, gender, social and education backgrounds as we serve customers in over 80 different countries around the world.
We actively seek to hire and retain talented employees and remunerate our employees with what we believe are attractive packages that are competitive with or superior to our peers. This includes not only competitive salaries and benefits, but also performance based-bonuses and employee share schemes. In addition, we also provide opportunities for employees to move within the organization through continuous development programs, industry insights and training and knowledge sharing sessions as well as through well-being initiatives.
We participate in a number of charitable events and industry-related educational programs. Through our social responsibility program, we encourage employees to support local and national organizations that strengthen the communities in which they live and operate. Our employee-led CSR Committee oversees the selection of charitable themes and charity partners and the implementation of charitable donations and activities. A number of our charitable donations involve the matching of funds raised through employee team efforts for the benefit of local community projects. We, along with other major aircraft leasing companies, are a founder and sponsor of a prestigious master’s degree in aviation finance program at a renowned university. In addition to sponsorship, this program involves lectures by some of our key employees and internships provided by the Company to a number of international students from the program, in line with the global nature and identity of the Company and our business. In August 2021, we launched a four-year scholarship program, providing ten scholarships to students of the Faculty of Engineering at the International School of Engineering at Chulalongkorn University, Thailand’s number one ranked university and a world-class leader in aerospace engineering education. In addition to the scholarships, AerCap will provide a range of tailored support to students, including guest lectures and workshops, and summer internships. As part of the scholarship program, final year students will undertake a research project in collaboration with AerCap which will focus on our environmental objectives to reduce our carbon footprint and to drive sustainable growth for our airline customers and the wider aviation industry.
GECAS Integration
Following the completion of the GECAS Transaction, we have focused, and will continue to focus, on integration while maintaining the efficiency of our operations in order to achieve our operational, financial and strategic objectives. Since the completion of the GECAS Transaction, we have continued to execute our business strategy described above.
35


Aircraft portfolio
The following table presents our aircraft portfolio by type of aircraft as of December 31, 2021:
Aircraft type Number of
owned
aircraft
% Net Book Value Number of
managed
aircraft
Number of on
order aircraft (b)
Total owned,
managed and on
order aircraft
Passenger Aircraft 1,685  97  % 189  417  2,291 
Airbus A220 Family —  —  10  11 
Airbus A320 Family 530  13  % 76  —  606 
Airbus A320neo Family 312  27  % 15  265  592 
Airbus A330 74  % 10  —  84 
Airbus A330neo Family —  —  —  12  12 
Airbus A350 44  10  % —  50 
Boeing 737 MAX 45  % 67  113 
Boeing 737NG 366  13  % 79  —  445 
Boeing 777-200ER 21  —  —  —  21 
Boeing 777-300 / 300ER 49  % —  50 
Boeing 787 99  20  % 25  125 
Embraer E190 / E195 / E2 73  % —  33  106 
Other (a) 71  % —  76 
Freighter Aircraft 71 3  % 7 78
Boeing 737 45 % 7 52
Boeing 747 / 767 / 777 26 % 26
Total 1,756  100  % 196  417  2,369 
(a) Other includes 71 owned aircraft (including 26 Embraer E170/175 aircraft; 22 Boeing 767 aircraft; 19 ATR and De Havilland Canada DHC-8-400 aircraft and four Boeing 757 aircraft) and five regional jet aircraft on order.
(b) Excludes aircraft for which we have cancellation rights, and aircraft with contractual sales at delivery.

36


The following table presents our owned aircraft portfolio by type of aircraft as a percentage of total net book value as of each of the five years ended December 31, 2021:
As of December 31,
Aircraft type 2021 2020 2019 2018 2017
Passenger Aircraft 97  % 100  % 100  % 100  % 100  %
Airbus A220 Family —  —  —  —  — 
Airbus A320 Family 13  % 13  % 14  % 16  % 21  %
Airbus A320neo Family 27  % 23  % 18  % 14  % %
Airbus A330 % % % % 11  %
Airbus A350 10  % 10  % 10  % 10  % %
Boeing 737 MAX % % % % — 
Boeing 737NG 13  % 15  % 16  % 19  % 22  %
Boeing 777-200ER —  % % % %
Boeing 777-300/300ER % % % % %
Boeing 787 20  % 29  % 28  % 25  % 22  %
Embraer E190/195/E2 % % % —  — 
Other % —  —  —  %
Freighter Aircraft 3  %        
Boeing 737 % —  —  —  — 
Boeing 747 / 767 / 777 % —  —  —  — 
Total 100  % 100  % 100  % 100  % 100  %
New technology aircraft (a) 61  % 63  % 58  % 49  % 37  %
(a)New technology aircraft includes Airbus A220 Family, Airbus A320neo Family, Airbus A350, Boeing 737 MAX, Boeing 787 and Embraer E2 aircraft.
Following the fatal accidents of two Boeing 737 MAX aircraft, the worldwide fleet of these aircraft was grounded by aviation authorities in March 2019 and production was temporarily suspended by Boeing in January 2020, resulting in ongoing delays in the delivery of our aircraft on order from Boeing. Most jurisdictions have now approved the Boeing 737 MAX return to service, including the United States, China and Europe. As of December 31, 2021, we had 43 Boeing 737 MAX aircraft delivered and on lease, and a further 67 Boeing 737 MAX aircraft on order, excluding aircraft for which we have cancellation rights. Refer to “Item 3. Key Information—Risk Factors—Risks related to competition and the aviation industry—The financial instability of an aircraft or engine manufacturer could impact delivery of our aircraft on order and negatively affect our cash flow and results of operations.”

37


During the year ended December 31, 2021, we had the following activity related to owned aircraft:
Held for operating leases Investment in finance leases, net Held for sale Total owned aircraft
Number of owned aircraft at beginning of period 863  76  —  939 
GECAS Transaction 662  157  823 
Aircraft purchases 45  —  —  45 
Aircraft reclassified to held for sale (27) —  27  — 
Aircraft sold or designated for part-out (33) —  (18) (51)
Aircraft reclassified from investment in finance leases, net
(7) —  — 
Number of owned aircraft at end of period 1,517  226  13  1,756 
Aircraft on order
The following table details our 417 aircraft on order as of December 31, 2021:
Aircraft type 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 Thereafter Total
Airbus A220 Family —  —  —  —  10 
Airbus A320neo Family 58  63  51  48  28  17  265 
Airbus A330neo Family —  —  —  12 
Boeing 737 MAX 15  18  21  —  67 
Boeing 787 25 
Embraer E190/195-E2 —  11  17  —  —  33 
Other —  —  —  —  — 
Total 80  91  91  92  43  20  417 
Due to our order book of aircraft, we believe that we are well-positioned to take advantage of trading opportunities and expand our aircraft portfolio. We believe that our global network of strong relationships with airlines, aircraft manufacturers, maintenance, repair and overhaul service providers and commercial and financial institutions gives us a competitive advantage in sourcing and executing transactions. Our revolving credit facilities are designed to allow us to rapidly execute our portfolio management strategies by providing us with large-scale committed funding to acquire new and used aircraft.
Aircraft acquisitions and dispositions
We purchase new and used aircraft directly from aircraft manufacturers, airlines and financial investors. The aircraft we purchase are both on-lease and off-lease, depending on market conditions and the composition of our portfolio. The buyers of our aircraft include airlines, financial investors and other aircraft leasing companies. We acquire aircraft at attractive prices in three primary ways: by purchasing large quantities of aircraft directly from manufacturers to take advantage of volume discounts, by purchasing portfolios consisting of aircraft of varying types and ages and by entering into purchase and leaseback transactions with airlines. In addition, we also opportunistically purchase individual aircraft that we believe are being offered at attractive prices. Through our marketing team, which is in frequent contact with airlines worldwide, we are also able to identify attractive acquisition and disposition opportunities. We sell aircraft when we believe the market price for the type of aircraft has reached its peak or to rebalance the composition of our aircraft portfolio.
Prior to a purchase or disposition, our dedicated portfolio management group analyzes the aircraft’s price, fit in our aircraft portfolio, specification and configuration, maintenance history and condition, the existing lease terms, financial condition and creditworthiness of the existing lessee, the jurisdiction of the lessee, industry trends, financing arrangements and the aircraft’s redeployment potential and value, among other factors. During the year ended December 31, 2021, we purchased 45 aircraft and sold 51 aircraft from our owned portfolio.

38


History and development of the Company
AerCap Holdings N.V. was incorporated in the Netherlands as a public limited liability company (“naamloze vennootschap or N.V.”) on July 10, 2006. AerCap is the global leader in aviation leasing with 2,369 aircraft owned, managed or on order, over 900 engines (including engines owned by our Shannon Engine Support joint venture), over 300 owned helicopters, and total assets of $74.6 billion as of December 31, 2021. Our ordinary shares are listed on the New York Stock Exchange (the “NYSE”) under the ticker symbol AER. Our headquarters is located in Dublin, and we have offices in Shannon, Miami, Singapore, Amsterdam, Shanghai, Abu Dhabi and other locations. We also have representative offices at the world’s largest aircraft manufacturers, Boeing in Seattle and Airbus in Toulouse.
As of December 31, 2021, we had 250,347,345 ordinary shares issued, including 245,395,448 ordinary shares issued and outstanding, and 4,951,897 ordinary shares held as treasury shares. Our issued and outstanding ordinary shares included 5,822,811 shares of unvested restricted stock.
The address of our headquarters in Dublin is AerCap House, 65 St. Stephen’s Green, Dublin D02 YX20, Ireland, and our general telephone number is +353 1 819 2010. Our website address is www.aercap.com. Information contained on our website does not constitute a part of this annual report. Puglisi & Associates is our authorized representative in the United States. The address of Puglisi & Associates is 850 Liberty Avenue, Suite 204, Newark, DE 19711 and their general telephone number is +1 (302) 738-6680. The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) maintains an internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. You can review our SEC filings, including this annual report, by accessing the SEC’s internet website at www.sec.gov.
AerCap completed the acquisition of the GECAS business from GE on November 1, 2021. Under the terms of the transaction agreement, GE received 111.5 million newly issued AerCap shares, $23 billion of cash and $1 billion of AerCap senior notes. Immediately following the completion of the GECAS Transaction, GE held approximately 46% of AerCap’s issued and outstanding ordinary shares. In connection with the GECAS Transaction, GE appointed one member to join the Board of Directors of AerCap, bringing the number of directors serving on AerCap’s Board of Directors to ten. Additionally, pursuant to the shareholder agreement between AerCap and GE, for as long as GE and its wholly owned subsidiaries, collectively, beneficially own at least 10% of our outstanding shares, GE will be entitled to designate a second director for appointment to AerCap’s Board of Directors. The GE shares are subject to a lock-up period which will expire in stages from nine to 15 months after the Closing Date. GE has entered into agreements with AerCap regarding voting restrictions, standstill provisions and certain registration rights. Refer to Note 4—GECAS Transaction to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in this annual report.
Our primary capital expenditure is the purchase of flight equipment under purchase agreements with the manufacturers (primarily, Airbus, Boeing and Embraer for aircraft). Please refer to “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Liquidity and capital resources” for a detailed discussion of our capital expenditures. The following table presents our capital expenditures for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019:
Year Ended December 31,
2021 2020 2019
(U.S. Dollars in thousands)
Purchase of flight equipment $ 1,703,395  $ 778,547  $ 3,359,092 
Prepayments on flight equipment 86,386  405,178  1,369,400 


39


Facilities
We lease our Dublin, Ireland headquarters office facility under a 25-year lease that began in December 2015, which has a termination right, at our option, in 2031. We lease our Shannon, Ireland office facilities under four separate leases, one of which expires in 2033 with an option to terminate in 2029 and three of which expire in 2029 with options to terminate in 2024. We lease our Singapore office facility under three leases that expire by February 2024. In January 2022 we entered into a lease for our Miami office facility that expires in December 2034. In addition to the above facilities, we also lease small offices in various locations around the world including Dublin, Ireland, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Shanghai, China, Dubai, United Arab Emirates and Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.
Organizational structure
AerCap Holdings N.V. is a holding company that holds directly and indirectly consolidated subsidiaries, which in turn own our aviation assets. As of December 31, 2021, AerCap Holdings N.V. did not own significant assets other than its direct and indirect investments in its subsidiaries. As of December 31, 2021, our major operating subsidiaries, each of which is ultimately 100%-owned by AerCap Holdings N.V., are AerCap Ireland Limited (Ireland) (“AerCap Ireland”), AerCap Ireland Capital DAC (Ireland), AerCap Global Aviation Trust (United States) (“AerCap Trust”), AerCap Aviation Leasing Limited (Ireland), Celestial Aviation Funding Unlimited Company (Ireland) and Celestial Aviation Services Limited (Ireland). Refer to Exhibit 8.1—List of Subsidiaries of AerCap Holdings N.V. for a complete list of all our subsidiaries.
Item 4A.    Unresolved Staff Comments
Not applicable.
Item 5.    Operating and Financial Review and Prospects
        You should read this discussion in conjunction with our audited Consolidated Financial Statements and the related notes included in this annual report. Our financial statements are presented in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, or U.S. GAAP. The discussion below contains forward looking statements that are based upon our current expectations and are subject to uncertainty and changes of circumstances. Refer to “Item 3. Key Information—Risk Factors” and “Special Note About Forward Looking Statements.”
Overview
Net income attributable to AerCap Holdings N.V. for the year ended December 31, 2021 was $1 billion, compared to a net loss of $299 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. For the year ended December 31, 2021, diluted earnings per share was $6.71 and the weighted average number of diluted shares outstanding was 149,005,981. Net interest margin, the difference between basic lease rents and interest expense, excluding the mark-to-market of interest rate caps and swaps, was $2.6 billion for the year ended December 31, 2021. Annualized net spread less depreciation and amortization was 2.2% for the year ended December 31, 2021. Please refer to “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Non-GAAP measures” for a reconciliation of net interest margin, annualized net spread and annualized net spread less depreciation and amortization to the most closely related U.S. GAAP measure for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020.

40


Major developments in 2021
The Covid-19 pandemic and responsive government actions continue to cause economic disruption and a reduction in commercial airline traffic as compared to pre-pandemic levels, resulting in an adverse impact on air travel in certain jurisdictions, the aviation industry and the demand for commercial aircraft. Despite the ongoing challenges of the Covid-19 pandemic, in 2021 AerCap:
Completed the GECAS acquisition on November 1, 2021, making AerCap the worldwide industry leader across all areas of aviation leasing: aircraft, engines and helicopters;
Raised $30.5 billion of financing, including note issuances in the capital markets, bank debt and revolving credit facilities, $24 billion of which was for the purpose of financing the GECAS Transaction;
Completed purchases of 45 new technology aircraft for approximately $2.2 billion;
Completed sales of 51 owned aircraft, with an average age of 18 years, for aggregate proceeds of approximately $0.8 billion;
Executed a total of 438 transactions, including 311 lease agreements; and
Received an ESG Rating of “A” from MSCI Inc., an improvement from our previous ESG rating of “BBB.”
Aviation assets
During the year ended December 31, 2021, we purchased 45 owned aircraft, five engines and eight helicopters for approximately $2.4 billion. As of December 31, 2021, we owned 1,756 aircraft and managed 196 aircraft. We also owned or managed over 900 engines (including engines owned by SES) and over 300 helicopters. As of December 31, 2021, we had 417 new aircraft on order. The average age of our fleet of 1,756 owned aircraft, weighted by net book value, was 7.1 years as of December 31, 2021.
Significant components of revenues and expenses
Revenues and other income
Our revenues and other income consist primarily of basic lease rents, maintenance rents and other receipts, net gain on sale of assets and other income.
Basic lease rents and maintenance rents and other receipts
Nearly all of our aircraft lease agreements provide for the periodic payment of a fixed or a floating amount of rent. Floating rents for aircraft are tied to interest rates during the terms of the respective leases. During the year ended December 31, 2021, 1.2% of our basic lease rents from aircraft under operating leases was attributable to leases with lease rates tied to floating interest rates. In addition, our leases require the payment of supplemental maintenance rent based on aircraft utilization during the lease term, or EOL compensation calculated with reference to the condition of the aircraft at lease expiration. The amount of basic lease rents and maintenance rents and other receipts (together, “lease revenue”) we recognize is primarily influenced by the following five factors:
the contracted lease rate, which is highly dependent on the age, condition and type of the leased aircraft;
for leases with rates tied to floating interest rates, interest rates during the term of the lease;
the number of aircraft currently subject to lease contracts;
the lessee’s performance of its lease obligations; and
the amount of EOL compensation payments we receive, maintenance revenue and other receipts recognized during the lease and accrued maintenance liabilities recognized as revenue at the end of a lease.
In addition to aircraft-specific factors such as the type, condition and age of the aircraft, the lease rates for our leases with fixed rental payments are initially determined in part by reference to the prevailing interest rate for a debt instrument with a term similar to the lease term and with a similar credit quality as the lessee at the time we enter into the lease. Many of the factors described above are influenced by global and regional economic trends, airline market conditions, the supply and demand balance for the type of aircraft we own and our ability to remarket our aircraft subject to expiring lease contracts under favorable economic terms.
41


As of December 31, 2021, 1,624 of our 1,756 owned aircraft were on lease, with no lessee representing more than 10% of total lease revenue for the year ended December 31, 2021. As of December 31, 2021, our owned aircraft portfolio included 132 aircraft that were off-lease. As of March 25, 2022, of the 132 aircraft, 55 were re-leased or under commitments for re-lease, 43 aircraft were designated for sale or part-out (which represented less than 1% of the aggregate net book value of our fleet), 27 aircraft were being marketed for re-lease (which represented approximately 1% of the aggregate net book value of our fleet) and seven aircraft were sold.
Net gain on sale of assets
Our net gain on sale of assets is generated from the sale of our flight equipment and is largely dependent on the condition of the asset being sold, prevailing interest rates, airline market conditions and the supply and demand balance for the type of asset we are selling. The timing of aircraft sale closings is often uncertain, as a sale may be concluded swiftly or negotiations may extend over several weeks or months. As a result, even if net gain on sale of assets is comparable over a long period of time, during any particular reporting period we may close significantly more or fewer sale transactions than in other reporting periods. Accordingly, net gain on sale of assets recorded in one reporting period may not be comparable to net gain on sale of assets in other reporting periods.
Other income
Other income consists of proceeds from claims sales, interest revenue, management fee revenue, insurance proceeds and income related to other miscellaneous activities.
Our interest revenue is derived primarily from interest on unrestricted and restricted cash balances and on financial instruments we hold, such as notes receivable, loans receivable and subordinated debt investments in unconsolidated securitization vehicles or affiliates. The amount of interest revenue we recognize in any period is influenced by our unrestricted or restricted cash balances, the principal balance of financial instruments we hold, contracted or effective interest rates, and movements in provisions for financial instruments which can affect adjustments to valuations or provisions.
We generate management fee revenue by providing management services to non-consolidated aircraft securitization vehicles, joint ventures, and other third parties. Our management services include aircraft asset management services, such as leasing, remarketing and technical advisory services, cash management and treasury services, and accounting and administrative services.
During the year ended December 31, 2021, we recognized $635 million of proceeds from the sale of unsecured claims in Other income. Refer to Note 23—Other income to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in this annual report.
Operating expenses
Our operating expenses consist primarily of depreciation and amortization, interest expense, leasing expenses and selling, general and administrative expenses.
Depreciation and amortization
Our depreciation expense is influenced by the adjusted gross book values, depreciable lives and estimated residual values of our flight equipment. Adjusted gross book value is the original cost of our flight equipment, adjusted for subsequent capitalized improvements, impairments and accounting basis adjustments associated with a business combination or a purchase and leaseback transaction. In addition, we have definite-lived intangible assets which are amortized over the period which we expect to derive economic benefits from such assets.
Interest expense
Our interest expense arises from a variety of debt funding structures and related derivative financial instruments as described in “Item 11—Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk,” Note 12—Derivative financial instruments and Note 15—Debt to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in this annual report. Interest expense in any period is primarily affected by contracted interest rates, amortization of fair value adjustments, amortization of debt issuance costs and debt discounts and premiums, principal amounts of indebtedness and unrealized mark-to-market gains or losses on derivative financial instruments for which we do not achieve cash flow hedge accounting treatment.
42


Leasing expenses
Our leasing expenses consist primarily of maintenance rights asset amortization expense, maintenance expenses on our flight equipment, which we incur during the lease through lessor maintenance contributions or when we perform maintenance on our off-lease aircraft, expenses we incur to monitor the maintenance condition of our flight equipment during a lease, expenses to transition flight equipment from an expired lease to a new lease contract, non-capitalizable flight equipment expenses, and provisions for credit losses on notes receivable, trade receivables, loans and investment in finance leases, net.
Maintenance rights assets are recognized when we acquire flight equipment subject to existing leases. These assets represent the contractual right to receive the aircraft in a specified maintenance condition at the end of the lease under lease contracts with EOL payment provisions, or our right to receive the aircraft in better maintenance condition due to aircraft maintenance events performed by the lessee either through reimbursement of maintenance deposit rents held under lease contracts with maintenance reserve (“MR”) provisions, or through a lessor contribution to the lessee.
For leases with EOL maintenance provisions, upon lease termination, we recognize receipt of EOL cash compensation as lease revenue to the extent those receipts exceed the EOL maintenance rights asset, and we recognize leasing expenses when the EOL maintenance rights asset exceeds the EOL cash received. For leases with maintenance reserve payment provisions, we recognize maintenance rights expense at the time the lessee submits a reimbursement claim and provides the required documentation related to the cost of a qualifying maintenance event that relates to pre-acquisition usage.
Selling, general and administrative expenses
Our selling, general and administrative expenses consist primarily of personnel expenses, including salaries, benefits and severance compensation, share-based compensation expense, professional and advisory costs, office facility expenses and travel expenses, as summarized in Note 22—Selling, general and administrative expenses to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in this annual report. The level of our selling, general and administrative expenses is influenced primarily by the number of our employees and the extent of transactions or ventures we pursue that require the assistance of outside professionals or advisors.
Income tax benefit (expense)
Our operations are taxable primarily in the two main jurisdictions in which we manage our business: Ireland and the United States. Deferred taxes are provided to reflect the impact of temporary differences between our income before income taxes and our taxable income. Our effective tax rate has varied from year to year. The primary source of temporary differences is the availability of tax depreciation in our primary operating jurisdictions. Our effective tax rate in any year depends on the tax rates in the jurisdictions from which our income is derived, along with the extent of permanent differences between income or loss before income taxes and taxable income.
We have tax losses in certain jurisdictions that can be carried forward, which we recognize as deferred tax assets. We evaluate the recoverability of deferred tax assets in each jurisdiction in each period based upon our estimates of future taxable income in these jurisdictions. If we determine that we are not likely to generate sufficient taxable income in a jurisdiction prior to expiration, if any, of the availability of tax losses, we establish a valuation allowance against the tax loss to reduce the deferred tax asset to its recoverable value. We evaluate the appropriate level of valuation allowances annually and make adjustments as necessary. Increases or decreases to valuation allowances can affect our income tax benefit (expense) in our Consolidated Income Statements and consequently may affect our effective tax rate in a given year.

43


Factors affecting our results
Our results of operations have also been affected by a variety of other factors, primarily:
the completion of the GECAS acquisition;
the severity, extent and duration of the Covid-19 pandemic and the rate of recovery in air travel, the aviation industry and global economic conditions, and the potential impacts of the pandemic and responsive government actions on our business and results of operations, financial condition and cash flows;
the number, type, age and condition of the flight equipment we own;
aviation industry market conditions, including general economic and political conditions;
the demand for our flight equipment and the resulting lease rates we are able to obtain for our flight equipment;
the availability and cost of debt capital to finance purchases of flight equipment;
the purchase price we pay for our flight equipment;
the number, type and sale price of flight equipment, or parts in the event of a part-out of flight equipment, we sell in a period;
the ability of our lessees to meet their lease obligations, and the timing thereof, and maintain our flight equipment in airworthy and marketable condition;
the utilization rates of our flight equipment;
the recognition of non-cash share-based compensation expense related to the issuance of restricted stock units or restricted stock;
our expectations of future maintenance reimbursements and lessee maintenance contributions;
interest rates, which affect our lease revenues, our interest expense and the market value of our interest rate derivatives;
our ability to fund our business; and
our ability to recover claims related to airline bankruptcies or other restructurings.

44


Factors affecting the comparability of our results
GECAS Transaction
AerCap completed the acquisition of GECAS on November 1, 2021. The results of GECAS’s operations have been included in our consolidated financial statements since November 1, 2021. The acquired GECAS business contributed total revenues and other income of $0.4 billion and net income of $49 million to AerCap for the period beginning November 1, 2021, and ended December 31, 2021. Refer to Note 4—GECAS Transaction for further details.
During 2021, we recognized transaction and integration-related expenses of $335 million related to the GECAS Transaction.
During 2020, we did not recognize any transaction-related expenses.
Asset impairment charges    
During 2021, we recognized impairment charges of $128.4 million related to sales transactions and lease terminations.
During 2020, we recognized impairment charges of $1.1 billion related primarily to current technology widebody aircraft, in particular Airbus A330 and Boeing 777 aircraft. In addition, we recognized impairment charges related to sales transactions and lease terminations. We also assessed our indefinite-lived goodwill assets for impairment and recognized impairment charges related to goodwill.
Cash accounting
When we determine that the collection of rental payments is no longer probable, we cease accrual-based revenue recognition on an operating lease contract and we instead recognize lease revenues using a cash accounting method (“Cash Accounting”). During 2021, we recognized a reduction in basic lease rents of $296 million due to the application of Cash Accounting.
During 2020, we recognized a reduction in basic lease rents of $311 million due to Cash Accounting.
Proceeds from sale of unsecured claims
During 2021, we recognized $635 million of proceeds from the sale of unsecured claims in other income.
During 2020, we did not recognize proceeds from the sale of unsecured claims.
Losses on debt extinguishment
During 2021, we recognized losses on debt extinguishment of $9.7 million.
During 2020, we recognized losses on debt extinguishment of $118.5 million, primarily related to the premium paid on the repurchase of debt as a result of the tender offers completed in 2020.
Gain (loss) on investment at fair value
During 2021, we recognized a gain on investment at fair value of $2.3 million.
During 2020, we recognized a loss on investment at fair value of $143.5 million.
Sales transactions
During 2021, we completed sales of 51 owned aircraft, with an average age of 18 years, for aggregate proceeds of approximately $0.8 billion.
During 2020, we completed sales of 40 owned aircraft, with an average age of 17 years, for aggregate proceeds of approximately $0.6 billion.

45


Trends in our business
The impact of the Covid-19 pandemic has had a dramatic impact on aviation. Overall global passenger traffic, measured in revenue passenger kilometers, rose in 2021, but was still only 42% of 2019 pre-pandemic levels, according to IATA. In March 2022, IATA estimated that global air passenger traveler numbers would recover significantly in 2022, to 83% of 2019 pre-pandemic levels. This forecast is subject to downside risk if continued or more severe travel restrictions are imposed.
We expect demand for leased aircraft to remain subdued in the short term and over the medium term we expect improvements in leased aircraft demand as air traffic continues to recover from the lows observed in 2020.
Critical accounting policies and estimates
Our Consolidated Financial Statements are prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP, and require us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in our Consolidated Financial Statements and accompanying notes. The use of estimates is or could be a significant factor affecting the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses, and related disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities. Our estimates and assumptions are based on historical experiences and currently available information that management believes to be reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results may differ from our estimates under different conditions, sometimes materially. A summary of our significant accounting policies is presented in Note 3—Summary of significant accounting policies to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in this annual report. Critical accounting policies and estimates are defined as those that are both most important to the portrayal of our financial condition and results of operations and that require our judgments, estimates and assumptions. Our critical accounting policies and estimates are described below.
Flight equipment held for operating leases, net
Flight equipment held for operating leases is stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment. Flight equipment is depreciated to its estimated residual value on a straight-line basis over the useful life of the asset. The costs of improvements to flight equipment are normally recorded as leasing expenses unless the improvement increases the long-term value of the flight equipment. In that case, the capitalized improvement cost is depreciated over the estimated remaining useful life of the aircraft.
Useful Life (a) Residual Value (b)
Passenger aircraft 25 years 15  %
Freighter aircraft 35 years 15  %
Helicopters 30 years 20  %
Engines 20 years 60  %
(a) Useful life may be determined to be a different period depending on the disposition strategy.
(b) Estimated industry price, except where more relevant information indicates that a different residual value is more appropriate.
We periodically review the estimated useful lives and residual values of our flight equipment based on our industry knowledge, external factors, such as current market conditions, and changes in our disposition strategies, to determine if they are appropriate, and record adjustments to depreciation rates prospectively on an individual asset basis, as necessary.
We test flight equipment for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the assets may not be recoverable. The quarterly impairment assessments are primarily triggered by potential sale transactions, early terminated leases, credit events impacting lessees or forecasted significant and permanent declines in the demand for asset types. The quantitative impairment test is performed at the lowest level for which identifiable cash flows are largely independent of other groups of assets, which is the individual asset, including the lease-related assets and liabilities of that asset, such as the maintenance rights assets, lease incentives, and maintenance liabilities (the “Asset Group”). If the sum of the expected undiscounted future cash flows is less than the Asset Group, an impairment loss is recognized. The loss is measured as the excess of the carrying value of the Asset Group over its estimated fair value.
Fair value reflects the present value of future cash flows expected to be generated from the assets, including its expected residual value, discounted at a rate commensurate with the associated risk. Future cash flows are assumed to occur under current market conditions and assume adequate time for a sale between a willing buyer and a willing seller. Expected future lease rates are based on all relevant information available, including current contracted rates for similar assets and industry trends.
46


On an annual basis, we also perform an assessment of all assets held for operating leases to identify potential impairment by reference to estimated future cash flows at the Asset Group level, and perform a quantitative impairment test. We apply significant judgment in assessing whether an impairment is necessary and in estimating significant assumptions including the future lease rates, maintenance cash flow forecasts, the residual value and the discount rate when performing quantitative impairment tests.
Due to the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic, many of our customers continue to curtail their commercial operations and are under varying degrees of financial stress, which could result in lease defaults, lease terminations and related aircraft repossessions. The future cash flows supporting the carrying value of our flight equipment are based on current lease contracts and our estimates of future lease rates, useful lives and residual values for these assets. As a result of the Covid-19 pandemic and its impact on the aviation industry and the global economic environment, there is more uncertainty regarding the future cash flows relating to our flight equipment. A reduction in the future expected cash flows relating to our assets could result in impairment losses that could be material to our financial results.
The ongoing Covid-19 pandemic and responsive government actions continue to have an impact on international travel. While both domestic and international air travel continue to increase since the low points experienced in early 2020, in general domestic travel has been faster to recover and has been more rapid than for international travel. During the year ended December 31, 2021, the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic led governments in many countries to reimpose restrictions on international travel or to delay the relaxation of existing restrictions. As a result, the expected recovery time for international air traffic has become longer.
Due to the significant uncertainties associated with potential sales transactions, we use our judgment to evaluate whether a sale or other disposal is more likely than not. The factors we consider in our assessment include (i) the progress of the potential sales transactions through a review and evaluation of the sales-related documents and other communications, including, but not limited to, letters of intent or sales agreements that have been negotiated or executed; (ii) our general or specific fleet strategies and other business needs and how those requirements bear on the likelihood of sale or other disposal; and (iii) the evaluation of potential execution risks, including the source of potential purchaser funding and other execution risks.
The future cash flows supporting the carrying value of aircraft that are 15 years of age or older are more dependent upon current lease contracts, and these leases are generally more sensitive to weaknesses in the global economic environment. Deterioration of the global economic environment and a decrease in aircraft values might have a negative effect on the undiscounted cash flows of older aircraft and might cause an impairment loss. As of December 31, 2021, 469 aircraft with an aggregate Asset Group value of approximately $6.8 billion were 15 years of age or older, which represented approximately 13% of our total flight equipment and lease-related assets and liabilities. The estimated undiscounted future cash flows of these 469 aircraft were $9.9 billion, which measured on a weighted average basis was 47% in excess of the aggregate carrying value. As of December 31, 2021, all of these aircraft passed the recoverability test. The following assumptions drive the undiscounted cash flows: contracted lease rents through current lease expiry; subsequent re-lease rates based on current marketing information; maintenance cash flow forecasts; and residual values. We review and stress-test our key assumptions to reflect any observed weakness in the global economic environment.
Aircraft that are between five and 15 years of age where future cash flows do not exceed the aircraft carrying value by at least 10% are more susceptible to impairment risk. As of December 31, 2021, seven aircraft with an Asset Group carrying value of $368.3 million did not exceed our 10% threshold, which represented less than 1% of our total flight equipment held for operating leases and lease-related assets and liabilities. The seven aircraft that were below the 10% threshold did, however, pass the impairment test as of December 31, 2021, and as such no impairment was recognized.
Application of the acquisition method of accounting
We applied the acquisition method of accounting and measured the identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed at their respective fair values on the GECAS Transaction Closing Date. These fair values were determined primarily using the income approach and were primarily based on significant inputs and assumptions that are not observable in the market. The fair value measurement of each major asset acquired and liability assumed is discussed separately below:
47


Flight equipment held for operating leases, net: We measured the fair value of the GECAS flight equipment in its estimated physical condition as of the Closing Date using contractual lease cash flows adjusted by lessee credit risk, estimated follow-on lease cash flows and estimated residual values. We included contracted lease cash flows in the fair value where applicable for the remainder of the existing lease terms and expected follow-on lease cash flows using estimated market lease rental rates and an estimated residual value based on the flight equipment type, age, and airframe and engine configuration, as applicable and required. The aggregate cash flows were then discounted to present value. The discount rate was based on the type and age of flight equipment and incorporated market participant assumptions regarding the likely debt and equity financing components and the required returns of those financing components. Key inputs and assumptions underlying the income approach and the projected cash flows are discussed further below:
(a)    The contracted leases were adjusted to current market rents as appropriate, and accounted for approximately 49% of the flight equipment’s fair value.

(b)    For in-production, younger aircraft, residual values were assumed after the extension of the existing lease or new lease. The residual value assumption was based on an internal model. The residual values for in-production younger aircraft accounted for approximately 28% of the flight equipment’s fair value.

(c)    For most aircraft, an extension of the existing lease or a new lease was assumed based on our knowledge of the lessee’s fleet plans and expected market lease rents. The extensions and new leases accounted for approximately 14% of the flight equipment’s fair value.

(d)    To determine the residual values for out-of-production, older aircraft that are at the end of their economic life, we assumed that these aircraft are to be sold for parts at the conclusion of their respective leases (“Part-out Residual”). The Part-out Residual values were based on an internal part-out model. Part-out Residual values accounted for approximately 9% of the flight equipment’s fair value.

(e)    The discount rate assumption is based on our knowledge of market returns and leverage and was 6.5%.

Investment in finance leases, net: We determined the fair value of the GECAS investment in finance leases, net using an income approach based on the present value of the current contracted finance leases for the remainder of the terms, and an estimated residual value where we retain the residual value risk. The cash flows were then discounted to present value using a discount rate of 6.5%. The discount rate incorporated market participant assumptions regarding the likely debt and equity financing components and the required returns of those financing components. Key inputs and assumptions underlying the income approach relate to the counterparty’s ability to fulfil their obligations under the existing contracts and an appropriate discount rate.
Maintenance rights asset and lease premium, net: We determined the fair value of the GECAS maintenance rights assets associated with contracts with EOL compensation provisions based on the present value of the expected cash flows, measured as the difference between the aircraft physical maintenance condition at the Closing Date and the specified contractual return condition at the end of the respective lease term, adjusted for the credit risk of the lessee. The fair value of the maintenance rights assets associated with contracts where the lessee provides maintenance reserve payments based on usage during the lease term was determined based on the present value of reimbursements to lessees for maintenance events relating to pre-acquisition usage expected during the remaining post-acquisition lease term. The expected cash flows of the EOL compensation provision and maintenance reserve-paying lease contracts are discounted at market rates of return that reflect the relative risk of achieving the expected cash flows of the assets and the time value of money.
We determined the fair value of the lease premium based on the present value of the expected cash flows calculated as the difference between the contractual lease payments, adjusted for lessee credit risk, and the lease payments that the aircraft could generate over the remaining lease term based on current market rates.
Accrued maintenance liability: We determined the fair value of the GECAS maintenance liabilities, including amounts we agreed to contribute to certain maintenance events that the lessee incurs during the lease term (“Lessor Contributions”) relating to pre-acquisition aircraft usage. The fair value was determined based on the present value of expected cash outflows during the remaining lease term consisting of expected reimbursements of maintenance reserves and expected lessor contributions at the time of the forecasted maintenance event. These two cash flows are based on estimated maintenance intervals and estimated cost to perform the maintenance event. The cash flows were discounted to their respective present values using a market rate of return that reflects the relative risk of the cash flows and the time value of money.
48


Income taxes: AerCap and GECAS have agreed to treat the GECAS Transaction as a deemed “asset sale” for U.S. federal income tax purposes and will, with respect to each target entity that is a domestic corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, jointly make an election under Section 338(h)(10) of the Internal Revenue Code, as amended (the “Code”), to similarly treat such stock purchases for legal purposes as deemed asset sales for U.S. federal income tax purposes. As a result of the tax structure of this transaction, AerCap will have a tax basis equal to fair market value (a “step-up”) in certain of the legacy GECAS U.S.-owned assets, including flight equipment. In the months following closing, a significant portion of the legacy GECAS U.S.-owned assets and related liabilities were transferred to Ireland. These assets and liabilities are subject to corporation tax in Ireland.
Recent accounting standards adopted during the year ended December 31, 2021
Please refer to Note 3—Summary of significant accounting policies to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in this annual report.
Future application of accounting standards
Please refer to Note 3—Summary of significant accounting policies to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in this annual report.
49


Comparative results of operations
Results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2021 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2020
Year Ended
December 31,
Increase/ (Decrease)
2021 2020
(U.S. Dollars in thousands)
Revenues and other income
Lease revenue:
   Basic lease rents
$ 3,891,089  $ 3,761,611  $ 129,478 
   Maintenance rents and other receipts
520,914  559,395  (38,481)
Lease revenue
4,412,003  4,321,006  90,997 
Net gain on sale of assets 89,428  89,618  (190)
Other income 722,574  83,005  639,569 
Total Revenues and other income 5,224,005  4,493,629  730,376 
Expenses
Depreciation and amortization 1,737,925  1,645,373  92,552 
Asset impairment 128,409  1,086,983  (958,574)
Interest expense 1,230,466  1,248,225  (17,759)
Loss on debt extinguishment 9,713  118,460  (108,747)
Leasing expenses 319,022  323,535  (4,513)
Selling, general and administrative expenses 317,888  242,161  75,727 
Transaction and integration-related expenses 334,966    334,966 
Total Expenses 4,078,389  4,664,737  (586,348)
Gain (loss) on investment at fair value 2,301  (143,510) 145,811 
Income (loss) before income taxes and income of
investments accounted for under the equity method
1,147,917  (314,618) 1,462,535 
Income tax (expense) benefit (162,537) 17,231  (179,768)
Equity in net earnings of investments accounted for under
the equity method
24,051  2,464  21,587 
Net income (loss) $ 1,009,431  $ (294,923) $ 1,304,354 
Net income attributable to non-controlling interest
(8,924) (3,643) (5,281)
Net income (loss) attributable to AerCap Holdings N.V. $ 1,000,507  $ (298,566) $ 1,299,073 
Basic lease rents.    The increase in basic lease rents of $129.5 million, or 3%, was attributable to:
the acquisition of assets, between January 1, 2020 and December 31, 2021, including the assets acquired as part of the GECAS Transaction, with an aggregate net book value of $28.8 billion on their respective acquisition dates, resulting in an increase in basic lease rents of $161.3 million;
an increase in basic lease rents of $41.7 million primarily due to re-leases and extensions at higher rates. The accounting for the extensions requires the remaining rental payments to be recorded on a straight-line basis over the remaining term of the original lease plus the extension period; and
a $14.2 million lower impact on basic lease rents as a result of the application of Cash Accounting during the year ended December 31, 2021 compared to the year ended December 31, 2020;
partially offset by
the sale of 91 aircraft between January 1, 2020 and December 31, 2021 with an aggregate net book value of $1.1 billion on their respective sale dates, resulting in a decrease in basic lease rents of $87.7 million.

50


Maintenance rents and other receipts.    The decrease in maintenance rents and other receipts of $38.5 million, or 7%, was attributable to:
a decrease of $129.4 million in maintenance revenue and other receipts from early lease terminations;
partially offset by
an increase of $90.9 million in regular maintenance rents, including regular maintenance rents related to the GECAS Transaction.
Net gain on sale of assets.    The decrease in net gain on sale of assets of $0.2 million was primarily due to the composition of asset sales. During the year ended December 31, 2021, we recognized proceeds of $836.2 million primarily relating to the sale of 51 aircraft and during the year ended December 31, 2020, we sold 40 aircraft for proceeds of $613.4 million.
Other income.    The increase in other income of $639.6 million was primarily driven by proceeds from the sale of unsecured claims during the year ended December 31, 2021.
Depreciation and amortization.    The increase in depreciation and amortization of $92.6 million, or 6%, was primarily a result of the GECAS Transaction and aircraft purchases, offset by aircraft sales.
Asset impairment.  During the year ended December 31, 2021, we recognized impairment charges of $128.4 million related to sales transactions and lease terminations. During the year ended December 31, 2020, we recognized impairment charges of $1.1 billion related primarily to current technology widebody aircraft, in particular Airbus A330 and Boeing 777 aircraft, as well as to the write-off of goodwill. Please refer to “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Critical accounting policies and estimates” for further information on our event-driven impairment assessments.
Interest expense.    The decrease in interest expense of $17.8 million, or 1%, was primarily attributable to:
a decrease in the average cost of debt to 3.6% for the year ended December 31, 2021 as compared to 3.8% for the year ended December 31, 2020. The average cost of debt excludes the effect of mark-to-market movements on interest rate caps and swaps, and debt issuance costs, upfront fees and other impacts. Please refer to “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Non-GAAP measures” for further information on the average cost of debt;
partially offset by
an increase in the average outstanding debt balance to $32.3 billion during the year ended December 31, 2021 from $30.2 billion during the year ended December 31, 2020, primarily resulting from debt incurred to finance the GECAS Transaction.
Loss on debt extinguishment.    During the year ended December 31, 2021, we recognized a loss on debt extinguishment of $9.7 million. During the year ended December 31, 2020, we recognized a loss on debt extinguishment of $118.5 million, primarily related to the premium paid on the repurchase of debt as a result of the tender offers completed in 2020.
Leasing expenses.    The decrease in leasing expenses of $4.5 million was primarily due to $54.7 million of higher expenses related to airline defaults and restructuring, and $39.1 million of higher aircraft transition costs and other leasing expenses offset by $59.3 million of lower lessor maintenance contributions and $39.0 million of lower maintenance rights asset amortization.
Selling, general and administrative expenses.   The increase in selling, general and administrative expenses of $75.7 million, or 31%, was primarily due to higher compensation-related expenses as a result of the GECAS Transaction.
Transaction-related expenses. During 2021, we recognized transaction-related expenses of $335.0 million related to the GECAS Transaction. Refer to Note 4—GECAS Transaction to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in this annual report for further details.
Gain (loss) on investment at fair value. During the year ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, we recognized a gain on investment at fair value of $2.3 million and a loss on investment at fair value of $143.5 million, respectively. We elected to account for an investment using the fair value option, whereby changes in the fair value based on quoted market price were recognized as a gain or loss in the Consolidated Income Statements.

51


Income tax (expense) benefit.    The effective tax rate was 14.2% for the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to the effective tax rate of 5.5% for the year ended 2020. The effective tax rate is impacted by the source and amount of earnings among our various tax jurisdictions as well as permanent tax differences relative to pre-tax income or loss. Refer to Note 16—Income taxes to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in this annual report for a detailed description of income taxes.
For Results of Operations for the year ended December 31, 2020, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2019, refer to “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Comparative results of operations” in our annual report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2020, filed with the SEC on March 2, 2021.
52


Liquidity and capital resources
Capital expenditures and cash commitments
We have significant capital requirements, including making pre-delivery payments and paying the balance of the purchase price for flight equipment on delivery. As of December 31, 2021, we had commitments to purchase 417 new aircraft, excluding aircraft for which we have cancellation rights, scheduled for delivery through 2027. We also had commitments to purchase 30 engines and 16 helicopters through 2025. As a result, we will need to raise additional funds to satisfy these requirements, which we expect to do through a combination of accessing committed debt facilities and securing additional financing, if needed, from capital markets transactions or other sources of capital. If other sources of capital are not available to us, we may need to raise additional funds through selling aircraft or other aircraft investments, including participations in our joint ventures. Refer to Note 15—Debt to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in this annual report for a detailed description of our outstanding indebtedness.

Overview of sources and uses of cash
As of December 31, 2021, our cash balance was $1.9 billion, including unrestricted cash of $1.7 billion, and we had $10.6 billion of undrawn lines of credit available under our revolving credit and term loan facilities and other available secured debt. As of December 31, 2021, our total available liquidity, including undrawn lines of credit, unrestricted cash, cash flows from contracted asset sales and other sources of funding, was $13 billion, and including estimated operating cash flows for the next 12 months, our total sources of liquidity were $18 billion. As of December 31, 2021, our existing sources of liquidity were sufficient to operate our business and cover approximately 2.2x of our debt maturities and contracted capital requirements for the next 12 months.
Debt
As of December 31, 2021, the principal amount of our outstanding indebtedness, which excludes debt issuance costs, debt discounts and debt premium of $344 million, totaled $50.5 billion and consisted of senior unsecured, subordinated and senior secured notes, export credit facilities, commercial bank debt, revolving credit debt, securitization debt and capital lease structures.
In order to satisfy our contractual purchase obligations, we expect to source new debt financing through access to the capital markets, including the unsecured and secured bond markets, the commercial bank market, export credit and the asset-backed securities market.
In the longer term, we expect to fund the growth of our business, including acquiring aircraft, through internally generated cash flows, the incurrence of new bank debt, the refinancing of existing bank debt and other capital-raising initiatives.
During the year ended December 31, 2021, our average cost of debt, excluding the effect of mark-to-market movements on our interest rate caps and swaps, debt issuance fees, upfront fees and other impacts, was 3.6%. As of December 31, 2021, our adjusted debt to equity ratio was 2.7 to 1. Please refer to “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Non-GAAP measures” for further information on our average cost of debt and reconciliations of adjusted debt and adjusted equity to the most closely related U.S. GAAP measures as of December 31, 2021 and 2020.
Refer to Note 15—Debt to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in this annual report for a detailed description of our outstanding indebtedness.
Taxation
AerCap Holdings N.V. is incorporated in the Netherlands and headquartered in Ireland, and is not directly engaged in business within, nor has a permanent establishment in, the United States. Only our U.S. subsidiaries are subject to U.S. net income tax or would potentially have to withhold U.S. taxes upon a distribution of our earnings.
While we were tax resident in the Netherlands, we did not accrue or pay taxes as a result of repatriation of earnings from any of our foreign subsidiaries to the Netherlands. Effective February 1, 2016, we became tax resident in Ireland and we would typically expect that the repatriation of earnings from our foreign subsidiaries should not, except where recognized in our financial statements, give rise to material additional Irish taxation due to the availability of foreign tax credits. As of December 31, 2021, $335 million out of $1.7 billion of cash and short-term investments was held by our foreign subsidiaries outside of Ireland. Additionally, legal restrictions in relation to dividend payments from our subsidiaries to us are described in “Item 10. Additional Information—Taxation—Dividend withholding tax.”
53


Contractual obligations
Our estimated future obligations as of December 31, 2021 include both current and long-term obligations. Our contractual obligations consist of principal and interest payments on debt, executed purchase agreements to purchase flight equipment and rent payments pursuant to our office and facility leases. We intend to fund our contractual obligations through unrestricted cash, lines-of-credit and other borrowings, operating cash flows and cash flows from asset sales. We believe that our sources of liquidity will be sufficient to meet our contractual obligations.
The following table provides details regarding our contractual obligations and their payment dates as of December 31, 2021:
2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 Thereafter Total
(U.S. Dollars in millions)
Unsecured debt
facilities
$ 2,655.4  $ 5,370.1  $ 7,250.0  $ 3,650.0  $ 5,250.0  $ 12,900.0  $ 37,075.5 
Secured debt
facilities
1,327.5  1,959.5  1,660.8  2,480.2  689.6  3,071.8  11,189.4 
Subordinated debt
facilities
—  —  —  —  —  2,277.2  2,277.2 
Estimated interest
payments (a)
1,561.6  1,394.2  1,168.8  953.3  740.8  5,557.6  11,376.3 
Purchase obligations
(b)
4,241.0  5,693.8  5,245.5  4,233.0  1,885.7  1,063.1  22,362.1 
Operating leases (c) 46.8  49.7  46.7  12.4  6.8  30.8  193.2 
Total $ 9,832.3  $ 14,467.3  $ 15,371.8  $ 11,328.9  $ 8,572.9  $ 24,900.5  $ 84,473.7 
(a)Estimated interest payments for floating rate debt are based on rates as of December 31, 2021 and include the estimated impact of our interest rate swap agreements.
(b)As of December 31, 2021, we had commitments to purchase 417 aircraft (including 26 purchase and leaseback transactions and excluding aircraft for which we have cancellation rights and aircraft with contracted sales at delivery), 30 engines, 16 helicopters and other commitments. The timing of our purchase obligations is based on current estimates. We have incorporated expected delivery delays into the table above. In addition, we have the right to reschedule the delivery dates of certain of our aircraft to future dates. Refer to Note 30—Commitments and contingencies to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in this annual report for further details on our purchase obligations.
(c)Represents contractual payments on aircraft that we lease in from corporate aircraft owners and contractual payments on our office and facility leases. Refer to Note 17—Leases to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in this annual report for further details on our operating lease obligations.


54


Historical Information
The following table presents our consolidated cash flows for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020:
Year Ended December 31,
2021 2020
(U.S. Dollars in millions)
Net cash provided by operating activities
$ 3,693.8  $ 2,130.4 
Net cash used in investing activities
(23,458.9) (712.3)
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities 20,183.8  (1,225.3)
Cash flows provided by operating activities.    During the year ended December 31, 2021, our net cash provided by operating activities of $3.7 billion was the result of a net profit of $1.0 billion, other adjustments to net income of $2.1 billion, collections of finance leases of $124.3 million, and the net change in operating assets and liabilities of $475.2 million. During the year ended December 31, 2020, our net cash provided by operating activities of $2.1 billion was the result of a net loss of $294.9 million, other adjustments to net loss of $3.0 billion, and collections of finance and sales-type leases of $68.1 million, partially offset by the net change in operating assets and liabilities of $654.7 million.
Cash flows used in investing activities.    During the year ended December 31, 2021, our net cash used in investing activities of $23.5 billion primarily consisted of the acquisition of GECAS (net of cash acquired) of $22.5 billion and purchase of aircraft of $1.8 billion, partially offset by cash provided by asset sale proceeds of $824.0 million. During the year ended December 31, 2020, our net cash used in investing activities of $712.3 million primarily consisted of cash used for the purchase of aircraft of $1.2 billion, partially offset by cash provided by asset sale proceeds of $471.4 million.
Cash flows provided by (used in) financing activities.    During the year ended December 31, 2021, our net cash provided by financing activities of $20.2 billion primarily consisted of cash provided by new financing proceeds, net of debt repayments and debt issuance costs, of $20.1 billion, net receipts of maintenance and security deposits of $159.5 million, the repurchase of shares and payments of tax withholdings on share-based compensation of $76.2 million, and cash used for the payment of dividends to our non-controlling interest holders of $0.3 million. During the year ended December 31, 2020, our net cash used in financing activities of $1.2 billion primarily consisted of cash used for new financing proceeds, net of debt repayments and debt issuance costs, of $867.5 million, net receipts of maintenance and security deposits of $227.1 million, the repurchase of shares and payments of tax withholdings on share-based compensation of $127.8 million, and cash used for the payment of dividends to our non-controlling interest holders of $2.9 million.
Off-balance sheet arrangements
We have interests in variable interest entities, some of which are not consolidated into our Consolidated Financial Statements. Refer to Note 28—Variable interest entities to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in this annual report for a detailed description of these interests and our other off-balance sheet arrangements.

55


Book value per share
The following table presents our book value per share as of December 31, 2021 and 2020:
As of December 31,
2021 2020
(U.S. Dollars in millions,
except share and per share data)
Total AerCap Holdings N.V. shareholders’ equity $ 16,571  $ 8,864 
Ordinary shares issued 250,347,345  138,847,345 
Treasury shares (4,951,897) (8,448,807)
Ordinary shares outstanding 245,395,448  130,398,538 
Shares of unvested restricted stock (5,822,811) (2,552,346)
Ordinary shares outstanding, excluding shares of unvested restricted stock 239,572,637  127,846,192 
Book value per ordinary share outstanding, excluding shares of unvested restricted
stock
$ 69.17  $ 69.34 
Non-GAAP measures
The following are definitions of non-GAAP measures used in this report on Form 20-F and a reconciliation of such measures to the most closely related U.S. GAAP measures.
Net interest margin, annualized net spread, annualized net spread less depreciation and amortization and average cost of debt
Net interest margin is calculated as the difference between basic lease rents and interest expense, excluding the impact of the mark-to-market of interest rate caps and swaps. Annualized net spread is net interest margin expressed as a percentage of average lease assets. Annualized net spread less depreciation and amortization is net interest margin less depreciation and amortization, including maintenance rights expense, expressed as a percentage of average lease assets. Average cost of debt is calculated as interest expense, excluding mark-to-market on interest rate caps and swaps, divided by the average debt balance. We believe these measures may further assist investors in their understanding of the changes and trends related to the earnings of our leasing activities. These measures reflect the impact from changes in the number of aircraft leased, lease rates and utilization rates, as well as the impact from changes in the amount of debt and interest rates.
56


The following is a reconciliation of basic lease rents to net interest margin, annualized net spread and annualized net spread less depreciation and amortization for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020:
Year Ended December 31, Percentage
Difference
2021 2020
(U.S. Dollars in millions)
Basic lease rents $ 3,891  $ 3,762  3  %
Interest expense 1,230  1,248  (1  %)
Adjusted for:
Mark-to-market of interest rate caps and swaps 20  (14) NA
Interest expense excluding mark-to-market on interest rate caps and swaps 1,250  1,234  %
Net interest margin $ 2,641  $ 2,528  4  %
Depreciation and amortization, including maintenance rights expense (1,745) (1,691) %
Net interest margin less depreciation and amortization $ 896  $ 837  7  %
Average lease assets $ 40,646  $ 37,145  %
Annualized net spread 6.5  % 6.8  %
Annualized net spread less depreciation and amortization
2.2  % 2.3  %

Adjusted debt to equity ratio
This measure is the ratio obtained by dividing adjusted debt by adjusted equity. Adjusted debt represents consolidated total debt less cash and cash equivalents, and less a 50% equity credit with respect to certain long-term subordinated debt. Adjusted equity represents total equity, plus the 50% equity credit with respect to the long-term subordinated debt. Adjusted debt and adjusted equity are adjusted by the 50% equity credit to reflect the equity nature of those financing arrangements and to provide information that is consistent with definitions under certain of our debt covenants. We believe this measure may further assist investors in their understanding of our capital structure and leverage.
The following is a reconciliation of debt to adjusted debt and equity to adjusted equity as of December 31, 2021 and 2020:
As of December 31,
2021 2020
(U.S. Dollars in millions
except debt/equity ratio)
Debt $ 50,205  $ 28,742 
Adjusted for:
Cash and cash equivalents (1,729) (1,249)
50% credit for long-term subordinated debt (1,125) (1,125)
Adjusted debt $ 47,351  $ 26,368 
Equity $ 16,647  $ 8,932 
Adjusted for:
50% credit for long-term subordinated debt 1,125  1,125 
Adjusted equity $ 17,772  $ 10,057 
Adjusted debt/equity ratio 2.66 to 1 2.62 to 1


57


Summarized financial information of issuers and guarantors
AerCap Trust and AerCap Ireland Capital Designated Activity Company Notes
From time to time since the completion of the acquisition of ILFC, AerCap Trust and AerCap Ireland Capital Designated Activity Company (“AICDC”) have co-issued senior unsecured notes (the “AGAT/AICDC Notes”). Refer to Note 15—Debt to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in this annual report for further details on the AGAT/AICDC Notes. The AGAT/AICDC Notes are jointly and severally and fully and unconditionally guaranteed by AerCap Holdings N.V. (the “Parent Guarantor”) and by AerCap Ireland, AerCap Aviation Solutions B.V., ILFC and AerCap U.S. Global Aviation LLC (the “Subsidiary Guarantors” and, together with the Parent Guarantor, the “AGAT/AICDC Guarantors”).
Subject to the provisions of the indenture governing the AGAT/AICDC Notes (the “AGAT/AICDC Indenture”), a Subsidiary Guarantor will be automatically and unconditionally released from its guarantee with respect to a series of AGAT/AICDC Notes under the following circumstances: (1) the sale, disposition or other transfer of (i) the capital stock of a Subsidiary Guarantor after which such Subsidiary Guarantor is no longer a Restricted Subsidiary (as defined in the AGAT/AICDC Indenture) or (ii) all or substantially all of the assets of a Subsidiary Guarantor; (2) the permitted designation of the Subsidiary Guarantor as an Unrestricted Subsidiary as defined in and pursuant to the AGAT/AICDC Indenture; (3) the consolidation, amalgamation or merger of a Subsidiary Guarantor with and into AerCap Trust, AICDC or another AGAT/AICDC Guarantor with such person being the surviving entity, or upon the liquidation of a Subsidiary Guarantor following the transfer of all of its assets to AerCap Trust, AICDC or another AGAT/AICDC Guarantor; or (4) legal defeasance or covenant defeasance with respect to such series, each as described in the AGAT/AICDC Indenture, or if the obligations of AerCap Trust and AICDC with respect to such series under the AGAT/AICDC Indenture are discharged.
The guarantee obligations of each Subsidiary Guarantor are limited (i) to an amount not to exceed the maximum amount that can be guaranteed by a Subsidiary Guarantor (after giving effect to any collections from, rights to receive contribution from or payments made by or on behalf of all other AGAT/AICDC Guarantors in respect of the obligations under their respective guarantees) without rendering the guarantee, as it relates to such Subsidiary Guarantor, voidable under applicable fraudulent conveyance or transfer laws, and (ii) as necessary to recognize certain defenses generally available to guarantors, including voidable preference, financial assistance, corporate purpose, capital maintenance or similar laws, regulations or defenses affecting the rights of creditors generally or other considerations under applicable law. In addition, given that some of the AGAT/AICDC Guarantors are Irish and Dutch companies, it may be more difficult for holders of the AGAT/AICDC Notes to obtain or enforce judgments against such guarantors.
Because AICDC and certain AGAT/AICDC Guarantors are holding companies with very limited operations, their only significant assets are the equity interests of their directly held subsidiaries. As a result, AICDC and certain AGAT/AICDC Guarantors are dependent primarily upon dividends and other payments from their subsidiaries to generate the funds necessary to meet their outstanding debt service and other obligations, and such dividends or other payments will in turn depend on factors, such as their subsidiaries’ earnings, covenants in instruments governing their subsidiaries’ indebtedness, other contractual restrictions and applicable laws (including local law restricting payments of dividends).
Junior Subordinated Notes
In October 2019, AerCap Holdings N.V. issued $750.0 million aggregate principal amount of 5.875% fixed-rate reset junior subordinated notes due 2079 (the “Junior Subordinated Notes”). Refer to Note 15—Debt to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in this annual report. The Junior Subordinated Notes are jointly and severally and fully and unconditionally guaranteed by AerCap Trust, AICDC, AerCap Ireland, AerCap Aviation Solutions B.V., ILFC and AerCap U.S. Global Aviation LLC (the “Subordinated Notes Guarantors”).
Subject to the provisions of the indenture governing the Junior Subordinated Notes (the “Subordinated Notes Indenture”), a Subordinated Notes Guarantor will be automatically and unconditionally released from its guarantee under the following circumstances: (1) the sale, disposition or other transfer of all or substantially all of the assets of a Subordinated Notes Guarantor; (2) the consolidation, amalgamation or merger of a Subordinated Notes Guarantor with and into AerCap Holdings N.V. or another Subordinated Notes Guarantor with such person being the surviving entity, or upon the liquidation of a Subordinated Notes Guarantor following the transfer of all of its assets to AerCap Holdings N.V. or another Subordinated Notes Guarantor; or (3) legal defeasance or covenant defeasance, each as described in the Subordinated Notes Indenture, or if the obligations of AerCap Holdings N.V. under the Subordinated Notes Indenture are discharged.
58


The guarantee obligations of each Subordinated Notes Guarantor are limited (i) to an amount not to exceed the maximum amount that can be guaranteed by a Subordinated Notes Guarantor (after giving effect to any collections from, rights to receive contribution from or payments made by or on behalf of all other Subordinated Notes Guarantors in respect of the obligations under their respective guarantees) without rendering the guarantee, as it relates to such Subordinated Notes Guarantor, voidable under applicable fraudulent conveyance or transfer laws, and (ii) as necessary to recognize certain defenses generally available to guarantors, including voidable preference, financial assistance, corporate purpose, capital maintenance or similar laws, regulations or defenses affecting the rights of creditors generally or other considerations under applicable law. In addition, given that some of the Subordinated Notes Guarantors are Irish and Dutch companies, it may be more difficult for holders of the Junior Subordinated Notes to obtain or enforce judgments against such guarantors.
Because AerCap Holdings N.V. and certain Subordinated Notes Guarantors are holding companies with very limited operations, their only significant assets are the equity interests of their directly held subsidiaries. As a result, AerCap Holdings N.V. and certain Subordinated Notes Guarantors are dependent primarily upon dividends and other payments from their subsidiaries to generate the funds necessary to meet their outstanding debt service and other obligations, and such dividends or other payments will in turn depend on their subsidiaries’ earnings, covenants in instruments governing their subsidiaries’ indebtedness, other contractual restrictions and applicable laws (including local law restricting payments of dividends).
59


Summarized Combined Financial Information
Summarized financial information (the “SFI”), as defined under Rule 1-02(bb) of Regulation S-X, is provided below for the issuers and the guarantor entities and includes AerCap Holdings N.V., AerCap Trust, AICDC, AerCap U.S. Global Aviation LLC, AerCap Aviation Solutions B.V., AerCap Ireland and ILFC (collectively, the “Obligor Group”) as of December 31, 2021, and for the year ended December 31, 2021. The SFI is presented on a combined basis with intercompany transactions and balances among the entities included in the Obligor Group eliminated. The Obligor Group SFI excludes investments in non-obligor entities.
Summarized combined financial information of issuers and guarantors
December 31, 2021
(U.S. Dollars in millions)
Flight equipment held for operating leases, net
$ 8,483 
Intercompany receivables
32,806 
Total assets
44,631 
Debt
38,726 
Intercompany payables
5,650 
Total liabilities
46,710 
Non-controlling interest
77 
Year Ended
December 31, 2021
(U.S. Dollars in millions)
Total revenues and other income (a) $ 2,206 
Total expenses (b) 1,347 
Income before income taxes and income of investments accounted for under the equity method 859 
Net income 753 
Net income attributable to AerCap Holdings N.V. 753 
(a)Total revenues include interest income from non-obligor entities of $635 million.
(b)Total expenses include interest expense to non-obligor entities of $16 million.
60


Item 6.    Directors, Senior Management and Employees
Directors and officers
Name Age Position Date of First
Appointment
End Current
Term (a)
Directors  
Paul Dacier 64 Non-Executive Chairman of the Board of Directors May 2010 2025 AGM
Aengus Kelly 48 Executive Director and Chief Executive Officer May 2011 2026 AGM
Julian (Brad) Branch 67 Non-Executive Director April 2018 2022 AGM
Stacey Cartwright 58 Non-Executive Director April 2019 2023 AGM
Rita Forst 66 Non-Executive Director April 2019 2023 AGM
Richard (Michael) Gradon 62 Non-Executive Director May 2010 2022 AGM
James (Jim) Lawrence 69 Non-Executive Director May 2017 2025 AGM
Jennifer VanBelle 53 Non-Executive Director November 2021 2025 AGM
Michael Walsh 55 Non-Executive Director May 2017 2025 AGM
Robert (Bob) Warden 49 Non-Executive Director July 2006 2022 AGM
Officers        
Peter Juhas 50 Chief Financial Officer    
Brian Canniffe 49 Group Treasurer
Peter Anderson 46 Chief Commercial Officer    
Vincent Drouillard 46 General Counsel
Joe Venuto 62 Chief Technical Officer    
Anton Joiner 51 Chief Risk Officer    
Jorg Koletzki 54 Chief Information Officer
Risteard Sheridan 47 Company Secretary and Chief Compliance Officer
Theresa Murray 54 Head of Human Resources
Bart Ligthart 40 Chief Investment Officer
Martin Olson 59 Head of OEM Relations
John Govan 50 Head of EMEA
Bashir Hajir 54 Head of Americas
Emmanuel Herinckx 49 Head of Asia Pacific
Pat Sheedy 42 President and CEO, Milestone Aviation
Tom Slattery 50 Executive Vice President Engines
Dermot Manifold 55 Head of Commercial Operations
(a)The term for each director ends at the Annual General Meeting of Shareholders (“AGM”) typically held in April or May of each year.
Directors
Our Board of Directors currently consists of ten directors, nine of whom are non-executive directors.
Paul Dacier.    Mr. Dacier has been a Director of AerCap since May 27, 2010. He is also currently the general counsel at Indigo Agriculture, a privately held start-up company, and he is on the Board of Directors of Progress Software Inc. (a software application development company). Until 2016, Mr. Dacier was Executive Vice President and General Counsel of EMC Corporation (an information infrastructure technology and solutions company), where he worked in various positions from 1990. He was a Non-Executive Director of GTY Technology Holdings Inc. from October 2016 until November 2019 and a Non-Executive Director of Genesis from November 2007 until the date of its amalgamation with AerCap International Bermuda Limited in March 2010. Prior to joining EMC, Mr. Dacier was an attorney with Apollo Computer Inc. (a computer work station company) from 1984 to 1990. Mr. Dacier received a B.A. in history and a J.D. in 1983 from Marquette University. He is admitted to practice law in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts and the state of Wisconsin.

61


Aengus Kelly.    Mr. Kelly was appointed Executive Director and Chief Executive Officer of AerCap on May 18, 2011. Previously, he served as Chief Executive Officer of AerCap’s U.S. operations from January 2008 to May 2011. Mr. Kelly served as AerCap’s Group Treasurer from 2005 through December 31, 2007. He started his career in the aviation leasing and financing business with Guinness Peat Aviation (“GPA”) in 1998 and continued working with its successors AerFi in Ireland and debis AirFinance and AerCap in Amsterdam. Prior to joining GPA in 1998, he spent three years with KPMG in Dublin. Mr. Kelly is a Chartered Accountant and holds a Bachelor’s degree in Commerce and a Master’s degree in Accounting from University College, Dublin.
Julian (Brad) Branch. Mr. Branch has been a Director of AerCap since April 25, 2018. Mr. Branch most recently served Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Ltd (Deloitte’s global organization) as Senior Advisor in the Office of the CEO and served the Boards of Deloitte Northwest Europe LP and of Deloitte’s Middle East practice. Mr. Branch’s professional career has spanned 40 years; he first qualified as a Certified Public Accountant in June 1979, and was a general partner of Deloitte entities in the U.S. including Deloitte & Touche LLP (accounting and auditing) and Deloitte Consulting LLP (consulting) for 29 years. His industry focus has been the air transportation industry; large global air carriers. Mr. Branch held a variety of global leadership roles with Deloitte, having lived and practiced outside of the U.S. for over a decade. Mr. Branch has vigorously supported the community through not-for-profit Board service, such as the Advisory Board of Emory University School of Ethics and the Duke University Heart Center. He received a B.A. and M.B.A. from the University of North Carolina.
Stacey Cartwright.    Ms. Cartwright has been a Director of AerCap since April 24, 2019. She is also currently a Non-Executive Director of Savills PLC, Genpact and Majid al Futtaim LEC. She also Chairs the Advisory Committee of Majid al Futtaim Lifestyle. Ms. Cartwright previously served as Chief Executive Officer of Harvey Nichols Group from 2014 to 2017 (and as Deputy Chairman in 2018), Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Burberry Group from 2004 to 2013, and Chief Financial Officer of Egg PLC from 1999 to 2003, having spent her early career with Granada Group. Ms. Cartwright was also a Non-Executive Director of GlaxoSmithKline PLC and a Senior Independent Dir